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Lecture 4

Bio 130 Summary textbook lecture 4. all about chromatin/chromosomes

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University of Toronto St. George

Lecture 4 Chromosomal DNA and its packaging in the Chromatin Fiber  The most important function of DNA is to carry genes, the information that specifies all the proteins and RNA molecules that make up an organism  genomes of eukaryotes are divided up into CHROMOSOMES  Double Helices of DNA comprising all 46 chromosomes.  Human genome-24 different chromosomes  Each chromosome consists of a single, enormously long linear DNA molecule associated with proteins that fold and pack the fine DNA thread into a more compact structure.  The complex of DNA and protein is called CHROMATIN  Although often called the bacterial "chromosome," it does not have the same structure as eukaryotic chromosomes  Each human cell contains two copies of each chromosome, one inherited from the mother and one from the father. The maternal and paternal chromosomes of a pair are called homologous chromosomes(homologs)  The only nonhomologous chromosome pairs are the sex chromosomes in males, where a chromosome is inherited from the father and an X chromosome from the mother. Thus, each human cell contains a total of 46 chromosomes-22 pairs common to both males and females, plus two so-called sex chromosomes (X and Y in males, two Xs in females )  DNA hybridization is a technique in which a labeled nucleic acid strand serves as a "probe" that localizes a complementary strand  We distinguish Chromosomes by a) “paining” each other with di
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