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Lecture 2

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School
University of Toronto St. George
Department
Biology
Course
BIO130H1
Professor
Melody Neumann
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 2 – January 9, 2014 - Tree of life: classification based on similarity in rRNA; came from a common ancestor cell o Broken into 3 domains  Bacteria  Archaea: in extreme environments  Eukaryotes: more similar to archaea - Clicker question#1: If we assume the diversity that we’ve just been talking about is the result of different genes or different patterns of gene expression are: o Modification of existing sequences o Synthesis of novel stretches of DNA - Two main types of cells o Prokaryotic  No nuclei; single celled  Plasma membrane, nucleoid, cell wall, ribosomes  Depend on diffusion  A lot simpler than eukaryotes  Eubacteria, archaea o Eukaryotic  Nuclei; single celled or multi-cellular  A 1000 times the volume of a prokaryote  Microtubules: give structure (part of cytoskeleton); Nucleolus: where ribosomes are made; Vacuole: regulates pressure in plant cells (turgor); Mitochondria; Chloroplasts  Have endo-membranes (ER, golgi body)  Plants, fungi, animals, humans - Eukaryotes evolved from prokaryotes. o Endo-symbiont theory: predatory nature of ancestral cell  Anaerobic ancestor  engulfed a bacterium which managed to escape digestion & provide ATP  Evidence • Genomes: mitochondria & chloroplast have their own genome • House-keeping machinery: have their own DNA machinery & protein synthesis • Double membrane (both with different composition): the prokaryote already had a membrane & when it was engulfed another membrane was put around it • Carnivorous single-celled eukaryote exits now - Clicker question#2: All of the following support the endo-symbiont theory except o Mitochondria & chloroplast only need RNA to replicate them selves - Approachestho study dithrsity o 19 & early 20 century: small info from looking at a few organisms o 20 & 21 century: using many mechanisms study model organisms - General attributes of model organisms o Rapid development with short life cycles o Small adult (reproductive) size o Readily available (collections or wide-spread) o Tractability – ease of manipulation or modification o Understandable genetics - Model system examples o Prokaryote  E. coli: heterotrophic eubacterium found in
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