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Lecture 3

Molecular Biology of the Cell - Lecture 3 Readings

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Jane Mitchell

Adaptive Biology The Molecular Biology of the Cell Chapter 2Cell Chemistry and Biosynthesis y Hydrophilic compounds are those that are water loving o Such as those that can form hydrogen bonds o Or those that carry a positive or negative charge o Dissolve in waterSugars DNARNA most proteins are all hydrophilic y Hydrophobic compounds are those that are waterfearing o Uncharged o Few or no hydrogen bonds o Not dissolvable in waterHydrocarbons are an example as they have carbons bonded to hydrogens covalently thus they are nonpolar cells exploit this using hydrocarbon tails in their membranes y Acids are those that donate protons to water which then form hydronium ions o Acids will donate protons more readily when put into a solution with low hydriom ions y Bases are those that accept protons from water to form hydroxyl ions o Bases will accept protons more readily when put into a solution with high hydronium ions y Ionic Bonds Very strong in the absence of water water dissociated the charged atoms y Hydrogen Bonds okstrong bonds formed between hydrogen and either oxygen nitrogen and fluorine They are not as strong in water due to opposing hydrogen bonds competition y Van der Waals Forces Forces that are generated by dipoles that form on atoms these are normally insignificant and water does not affect them y Four Family Groups in Organic Chemistry o 1 Sugars saccharides o 2Fatty Acids o 3 Amino Acids o 4 NucleotidesSugars y The simplest form of sugars are called monosaccharides o Common formula CHO 2no Where n34567 or 8 y Glucose is CHO or CHO 266126o Glucose is used widely by animals and plants for energy y It is used as the polysaccharides with the subunits of glucose glycogen in animals and starch in plantsy These are referred to as carbohydrates because of their formula
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