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Lecture 4

Molecular Biology of the Cell - Lecture 4 Readings

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Jane Mitchell

Adaptive Biology The Molecular Biology of the Cell Chapter 4DNA Chromosomes and Genomes y Chromosome an extremely long piece of DNA molecule associated with proteins that fold and bind the thread into a compact shape o Chromatin the complex of DNA and protein y Not much is known about prokaryotic chromosomes other than their circular shape y Several rare cells exists in the cell that lack DNA or cannot multiply DNA red blood cells are an example of such a cell o Every human contains two pairs one from the mother and one from the fatherThese are called homologous chromosomes or homologs y The only two chromosomes that are not homologs are the X and Y chromosomes y Thus every human has 22 pairs chromosomes common to male and female and one pair either XY for male and XX for female y Karyotype the display of the 46 human chromosomes at the mitosis stage the human karyotype yChromosomes contain long strings of DNA that hold genes or segments of information DNA that code for proteins or RNA molecules that perform a host of tasks o There is a relationship between gene amount and
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