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BIO130H1 (434)

Lecture 3

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Jane Mitchell

Lecture 3 Introduction to Nucleic AcidsProteins1Molecular interactions2Properties of nucleic acids3Intro to proteins4Amino acid structure5Protein structureMolecular interactionsoThe types of interactions that occur between macromolecules DNA RNA protein are transitorydynamic They are different from types of interactions that occur between the various monomers that make up nucleic acids proteinsoPhosphodiester bonds the linkages between individual nucleic acids in DNA chaincovalent linkages very hard to break apart and provide stabilityoElectrostatic interactions ionic bonds found in cellular environments useful but only in specific interactions inside the celloHydrogen bonds formed between proton donors and acceptors a lot of interactions that occur between macromolecules are engendered by these hydrogen bonds interactionsoVan der Waals attractions pulling macromolecules togetheroHydrophobic forces combination of hydrophilic coming in close proximity with hydrophobic cells the act of living in the aqueous environment of a cell tends to push hydrophobic into entities closer togetheroThese are the types of interactions that are involved in stabilizing macromolecules and allowing for them to interact in a dynamic fashionOverviewoWe talk about each one of these linear pieces of information having polarity The polarity resides within the chemical groups associated with either endsoThe 5 end represents the free phosphate group which is found on the first nucleotide of a particular chain that is being formedoThe 3 end refers to that free hydroxyl groupo5 to 3 orientation occurs in DNA RNA proteinoEach one of these macromolecules have specific orientation linear information specific polarityorientationNucleic acid chainsoDNA is synthesized from deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates otherwise known as dNTPsoRNA is synthesized from ribonucleoside triphosphates or NTPsoNucleotides are linked by phosphodiester bondsoThe chemistry involved in DNA replication is a function of 5 to 3 orientation It also describes the directionality of a lot of processes involved in replication and transcription The biochemistry ONLY works in this specific orientation and the enzymes involved in the biochemistry recognize this orientationBase pairingoHydrogen bonding occurs between bases on individual chains of DNAs and RNAs AT GCoThe way the bases are oriented on these DNA strands allow for 2 hydrogen bonds to form between A and T 3 to form between G and CoBy having pyrimidines pairing with purines you maintain same sort of diameter of the double helix and in shapeThree forces that keep DNA togetheroHydrogen bonding occurs in a linear direction between the strands They are in their strongest configuration when they are forming in a straight lineoVan der Waals attractions flickering dipoles between these macromolecules allows for helix to get squeezed together in a tighter configurationoHydrophobic interactions tries to avoid hydrophilic environment
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