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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto St. George
Jane Mitchell

Lecture 4 GenomesChromosomes1Genomes2Bacterial DNA packaging3Eukaryotic chromosomes4Nucleosomes5Chromatin structureHuman genomeoPackaged very nicely in 23 chromosomeso3 billion base pairs per genomeo25000 genes spread out across 23 chromosomesoSex chromosomes XX female XY maleBut genomes can come in all sizesoEverything from 3 billion pairs of human genomes to 1015 kilo base pairs of bacterial genomesoIts circulartypical structure of prokaryotic DNAsand contrast these sizes with organellar genomesoMost of the mitochondrial proteins are encoded by the nucleusoThey are circular too which reflect the prokaryotic ancestryComparing genome sizesoDoes size matter with the complexity of the organismBraineating amoebaoIts genome is incredibly huge than the human genomeoThey go into your nose when you swim in the lake and it consumes neurons in the back of your brainComparing genome sizesoAn organisms complexity and size does not reflect in genome sizeThe human genomeoAbout 15 of your genome encodes proteino50 of your genome is repetitive DNAAGAGAGAGTCTCTCTCoHow could you go from 25000 genes to all the way to a much more complex transcriptome and upwards of 100000 of proteinsYou have primary transcript of a specific gene that is processed later on during transcription into multiple transcrip
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