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BIO130 II Lec 1 and 2.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Jane Mitchell

Lecture 1 and 2TOPIC 1 MEMBRANE STRCTURESSaccharomyces cerevisiae budding yeast singlecelled eukaryote o Important model system for study because similar things happen in human cells o It has a membrane enclosed nucleus o Has plasma membrane that regulates the influx of materials to the cell o Has cell wall not found in animal cells but it helps this organism protect itself from harsh environments Multicellular organisms are composed of many different cell types o Carry out very distinct functionsTypical Animal Cell has o Extracellular matrix helps give tissue support found in many animal cells o Lysosomes helps to digest material animal specificTypical plant cell o Has nucleus ER golgi apparatus peroxisome mitochondria NRG is produced by cell that fuels processes plasma membrane o Vacuole takes up more than 13 of cell volume o VacuoleFluid filled area that helps provide turgor pressure against cell wall that keeps the plant rigidDigestion of components also occurs hereStorage of small molecule and proteinsSome singlecelled organisms also have a vacuole o Plant cell wall gives it a rigid structureCytoplasm content of the cell outside the cell nucleusIt includes that organelles that are found win cell but outside cell nucleusCytosol aqueous part of cytoplasmDoesnt include other membrane bound organellesOdes include the solubilised protein structure o Eg Ribosomes carry out protein synthesis cytoskeleton etcLumen inside of the specific organelleMEMBRANE STRUCTUREMany cellular functions occur at membranes1 Compartmentalizationallow diff processes to occur in diff parts of cell a Plasma membrane separates entire cell from environment 2 Scaffold for biochemical activities diff proteins found win diff membranes a Eg Transport in mitochondria generates ATP 3 Selectively permeable barrier to outsideMovement is regulated by specific proteins 4 Transporting solutes 5 Responding to external signals caused by specialized proteins on cell membrane called receptorsThey bind to diff proteins and initiate cascade of events that allow cellular change 6 Interactions bw cells make channel that allow solutes to be transferredCLICKER QUESTION Which of the following statements best describes the structure of membrane o The lipid bilayer is composed of three different types of lipids Incorrect 3 main types of lipids but there are 100s of diff types of lipids in membrane 5001000 lipids make cellular membranes o It is a fluid bilayer composed of hundreds of diff types of lipids and proteins o Bilayer of amphiphilic lipids glycoscolated on cytoplasmic leaflet Incorrect they are glycosolation happens outside of cellProtective coating for cellHas important signaling for cell o All of the lipids in bilayer have 2 Hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails incorrect bc chlorestrol does not have 2 HC tailsCell Membranes o Divides cell into compartments o Control movement of molecules o Lipid bilayer basic unit of membraneProvides membrane with a lot of its propertiesFluid structureLipids are not immobile they are able to move win membrane o Membrane proteinssuspended win bilayerReceptors channel proteinsAble to move within bilayer o The fluid mosaic model of membranefluid bc everything is able to moveMosaic bc there are not identical or repeating structures in bilayer o Lipid bilayer is amphiphilic
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