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lecture 1.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Jane Mitchell

Section 2 – lecture 1 (recording 1) *Saccharomyces cerecisiae— it‘s an important model of eukaryotes since it is simple and manipulate It has cell wall unlike other animal cells ―Typical‖ Animal Cell *Mitochondria-energy is produced by the cell *Lysosome: helps to digest organelles within the cell that is not functional, animal specific organell *Extracellular matrix: mainly found in animal cell, giving support to the animal cell +under Electrode Microscope(EM) each organelles can be identified with visual characteristics ―Typical‖ Plant cell *rigid cell wall (but not only always plants having cell wall) *Vacuole: exert targer pressure on cell wall Similar to lysosome of animal cell, digestion Storage of proteins and small molecules *1 Cytoplasm: contents of the cell outside of the cell nucleus, it includes the organelles found in the cell but outside of the nucleus *2 Cytosol: aqueous part outside of the nucleus, does not include the membrane-bound organelles in the cell. But does include the soluble protein ex) lysosome, cytoskeleton *3 Lumen: inside of the organelle (aqueous) Ppt 12 [Functions of Membranes] -compartmentalization (separate and organize independent spaces: 구획화) -scaffold for biochemical activities (specific proteins found on the membrane acts as scaffold for biochemical activies) -selectively permeable barrier: the movement across the memebrane can be controlled by proteins -transporting solutes (+receptors: the unique proteins on the plasma membrane allowing cells to respond to external signals) -Interactions b/w cells (forming channel b/w cells) Clicker questions Which of the following statements best describes the structure of cell membranes? A. The lipid bilayer is composed of three different types of lipids. (there are thousands types of lipids beside the 3main lipids : the most abundant lipid is phospholipid (have a polar head group with two hydrophobic carbon tails, the main phospholipids in animal cell is phosphoglyceides), ) B.A fluid bilayer composed of hundreds of different types of lipids and proteins. C.A bilayer of amphiphilic lipids gycosylated on the cytoplasmic leaflet. (glycosylation only happens outside of the cell) D.All of the lipids in the bilayer have two hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails. (cholesterol only has one hydrocarbon tail, in a lipid layer) Ppt13 [Cell membranes] -Cell membranes divides cell into compartments -Control movement of molecules *lipid bilayer (the basic structure of cell membrane) -hydrophilic head -hydrophobic tails *membrane proteins Ex) receptor, channel protein Able to move within the membrane Every differnet patch looks different, and lipids
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