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Lecture 1

BIO130 Lecture One Guide

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Yip

Chapter 1 Cells and Genomes (pg. 1 42) The Universal Features of Cells on Earth - All Cells Store Their Hereditary Information in DNA - All Cells Replicate their Hereditary Information Through Templated Polymerization - All Cells Transcribe Portions of Their Hereditary Information into RNA - All Cells Use Proteins as Catalysts - All Cells Translate RNA into Protein the Same Way - The Fragment of Genetic Information Corresponding to One Protein is One Gene - Life Requires Free Energy - All Cells Function as Biochemical Factories with the Same Basic Molecular Building Blocks - The same segment of DNA can be used repeatedly to guide the synthesis of many identical RNA transcripts. Thus, whereas the cells archive of genetic information in the form of DNA is fixed and sacrosanct, the RNA transcripts are mass-produced and disposable - The monomers of protein are amino acids and there are 20 types o Each amino acid is built around the same core structure through which it can be linked in a standard way to any other amino acid in the set; attached to this core is a side group that gives each amino acid a distinctive chemical character. Each of the protein molecules, or polypeptides, created by joining amino acids in a particular sequence folds into a precise three-dimensional form with reactive sites on its surface - The information in the sequence of a mRNA molecule is read out in groups of three nucleotides; what is called a codon o The code is read out by a special class of small RNA molecules; transfer RNAs (tRNAs) o Each type of tRNA becomes attached at one end to a specific amino acid, and displays at its other end a specific sequence of three nucleotidesan anticodonthat enables it to recognize, through base-pairing, a particular codon or subset of codons in mRNA o Many tRNAs reading and forming anticodons help form protein chain - These processesare carried out on ribosomes, formed of two main chains of RNA, called ribosomal RNAs, and more than 50 different proteins - Ribosomes latch onto the end of an mRNA molecule and then moves along it, capturing loaded tRNA molecules and stitching together the amino acids they carry to form a new protein chain SUMMARY: (mRNA to protein) (TRANSLATION) o DNA is transcripted into mRNA
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