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University of Toronto St. George

Integrative Physiology I 2 real life scenarios: pregnancy and birth together with exercises Pregnancy and birth Conception- pregnancy- lactation Reproductive system highly regulated by hormones egg or ovum once ovulated 72hours life Sperm – 120 hours life Egg release to ovary to fallopian tube through chemotaxis Fertilization – Day 1 – egg still in fallopian tube – after fertilization – zygote form – as it travel cleavage occurs continuously large spherical mass morla Blastocysts – pass to 5-9 days after fertilization Changes in lining of lining of uterus during reproductive cycle- endometrium goes to repeated changes During follicular phase endometrium proliferates and thickens and there is devpt of endometrial glands – secrete clear fluid in uterus – implantation now must occure Blastocyst attaches to lining of uterus – have rich capilliary network Trophoblasts cells surround the blastocysts and this is the first point of contact bet.endometrial cells and the lining. Trophoblasts cells invade endometrium – Endometrium can support trophoblast cell Trophoblast cell – produce enzymes Cytotrophoblasts remains close decidua Synciotiotrophoblast – invade into endometrium Have many processes similar to cancer cells Decidua Endometrium produces prostaglandins ac causes edema w/c further facilitates invasion process Human and non human primate plantation is complete Interstitial implantation Eccentric implantation – implantation not complete Why does mother not reject embryo/fetus? Trophoblasts – incade deciduas – form interphase bet.mother and child – not ecpress antigens Mother not generate antibodies to fetus Maternal immunosuppresion leads to dec. maternal antibody production Embryo develop rapidly – first 8 2eeks after we refer to fetus Once implantation occurred embryo continues to develop And certain fetus is discernible at this time fetus is surrounded by amnium overtime amnium fills w/ amniotic fluid w/c serves cushion from physical movement of mother and placenta develop and well forms During early pregnancy before placenta develop – embryo relies for diffusion 6weeks of age placenta begins to function and exchange of nutrients Placenta very active organ produces hormones fetal growth and maternal adaptations Placenta shape like disk and size of small dinner plate 1 layer trophoblast cells Efficient transfer for maternal and fetal circulations Placenta is primarily a fetal origin – trophoblast invade endometrium Maternal fetal circulation distinct fetal and maternal blood do not mix during gestation PLACENTATION 2 200 villi in placenta – contains blood Maternal oxygenated nutrient rich blood flows in sinus through uterine artery and leaves sinus by maternal venules Fetus – blood containing CO2 and waste pump out via umbilical artery Re oxygenated passes back to fetus via umbilical vein Hormones of Pregnancy 5 key hormones Myometrium – surrounds endometrium first muscle layer in endometrium Pregnancy – 280days in human hCG – high in early gestation – 6-8weeks hPL, P and E – increase with gestation but drop rapidly if placenta drop from uterus Estriol – predominant Estrogen in pregnancy hCG – peptide
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