Class Notes (839,585)
Canada (511,414)
Biology (2,229)
BIO220H1 (244)
Lecture 12

CLA233 Lecture 12 Notes

5 Pages
65 Views

Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO220H1
Professor
Michael J.Dewar

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Description
CLA233 Lecture 12 Notes The Amphitheatre - morning – hunt / venatio - lunch – execution / supplicia - afternoon – fights / pugnae or pares - did not tell us about the ideology around the amphitheatre – much can be pieced together, however - gladiators – climax - morning – beats hunts – trained hunters would kill animals - often the slaughter of many timid animals – demonstrate skill - more dangerous animals – lions, etc. - exotic or strange-looking animals were often slaughtered – giraffes - duty of the Roman aristocracy to keep civilization safe – physical demonstration of Roman power to keep the people safe - shows that the emperor can protect the people – also shows the extent of Roman influence through the dangerous and exotic animals that are displayed for slaughter - lunchtime break – executions of criminals – humans who act like animals - power over nature – controlling, taming – the Roman dominance over the natural world - fire – serious risk – arson not unheard of - arsonists and those who kill their fathers – equally terrible in the eyes of the Romans - arsonists were set on fire for their executions – symbolize their heinous act – were put in a tunic covered in accelerant and set alight - conquered peoples – those who refused to subject to Roman rule, or those who rebelled - idea – animals must be tamed and criminals must be punished - gladiators – different – admired for their skill and courage - with gladiators – dignitas, or lack thereof, comes into play – not all gladiators are the same - also – gladiators put themselves on for show for the amusement of the people – slaves – therefore they were not as dignified - gladiators who won or were not afraid – given their freedom – had achieved sufficient dignitas to be a freedman - idea that people at the bottom of society could join the people of Roma and rises through courage and fame - celebration of the power of Rome as a civilized state - very nasty world – Roman ability to dominate nature and criminals – power of Rome to be a civilized structure and keep its people from harm - ludi – “games”, also means school - ludi – chariot races, circus – mandatory like festivals – they had to be given – often has some sort of religious basis - gladiatorial games – freely given by the emperor - munera – means “duties” as well as “gifts” – first to the dead spirit, then to the people - at munera – giver of gifts gives a special gift – a treat to the people - munera are special events – “gifts” to be given at the discretion of the giver - uncertain how emperors decided when to have munera – always to honour the dead, as well as for victories - for victories – there were chariot races as well - munera are advertised because they were special and rare - gladiatorial demonstration was a part of showing Roman power – therefore if they did it well they were rewarded with their freedom - there were those who would not stay for the executions – Seneca arrives early for the gladiatorial games and is horrified by the executions - people go to the amphitheatre for different reasons – animals, executions, gladiator - unseemly to appear to go just for grisly pleasure – there must have many people who did go just for this reason, but they had to appear not to - graffiti on a necropolis – gladiatorial combats - gladiatorial fighting was always accompanied by music – wind pipes of wood – the three people on the side in the image - on the left side of the image is the giver of gifts and the relatives - differences in armour – Romans interested in mismatched fighters each of whom had different advantages – to see how they used their advantages - differences in armour and weaponry often had advantages and disadvantages that cancelled each other out – the Romans enjoyed this - gladiator Hilarus – gladiator under the emperor Nero - gladiator was still celebrated despite the Roman hatred for Nero – Hilarus was such a celebrated, well-trained, skilled professional - number before the brackets in the graffiti stood for how many battles were fought in total – after the bracket was the number of battles that were won - battles not won – either were tied or were lost - it was considered to be exciting to see a new fighter beat an established fighter - the letter “T” stood for tero, “novice” - missus – “reprieved”, let go - theta sign, θ – meant thanatos – died, “dead” - most gladiators in fact lived to retire – most death occurred with animals and certainly in executions - considered “lucky” if the Roman people saw even on gladiatorial death in a game Beginnings - great interest in the origin of the games – Romans found it fascinating - a date is given by Livy - there had not always been munera – Roman perspective – fairly new invention - there had always been ludi – sacred contests in honour of the gods - munera was a newer innovation and a private gift Advertising One’s Gift - munera – which were private gifts and rare – had to be advertised - twenty pairs of gladiators – more than one afternoon - father is the priest of Nero – advertises his generosity but is also preparing a career for his son in sharing the gift with his son – names his son as a gift- giver as well - people will remember the generosity of father and son - generosity of so many gladiators in the games – nearly a week’s worth of fighting - animals will also be hunted - awnings – there will be coverings for relief from the heat - advertise – name of the giver of gifts, what will occur, the date, and where it is to take place - beast-hunt and awnings – tells us that they are not regularly scheduled and that the person spent extra money for the people - advertising games is good publicity for the giver of gifts – considered a good Roman benefactor – will be well remembered - wants his son to be well thought of when he grew up and wanted to hold public office Giving the People Gifts is Good Policy - emperor did not want rivals at first - munera, ludi, and ther gifts – generally associated with the emperor’s duty to the Roman people - political support was based on entertainment just as much as everything else - according to Fronto – it was considered an “understanding of political science” - emperor Trajan dislikes the entertainment by g
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit