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Lecture 17

CLA230 Lecture 17 Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael J.Dewar

CLA230 Lecture 17 Notes The Rise of Macedon - late 4 century B.C. – rise of Macedon - Alexander I – Macedonian king surrenders to Persian kings during the Persian Wars - Macedon – peripheral to Greek world in some ways - Athenians have some interest in this area - Thrace is east of Macedonia th - before the 4 century B.C. – Macedonia is mentioned through Athenian interests - in the 5 century B.C., Athens interferes in Macedonian politics because it is not in the best interest of Athens for there to be a strong king in Macedonia - Athens often supported “pretenders” to the throne because it helped to keep succession weak - fairly weak kings until Philip takes over - succession claims were often weak because they were not always clear – “pretenders” often became kings - Macedonia not quite a Greek kingdom – “Greekness” of Macedonians is sometimes disputed - during the Persian Wars – panHellenic games – someone claims Alexander cannot compete because he is not Greek – Alexander proves that he is descended from Herakles - Alexander is able to compete and wins a chariot - potential for dispute regarding their Greekness, however - Alexander the Great – tutor is Aristotle - Bacchae is first performed in Macedonia – while Euripides is the royal poet - anti-Macedonians often claimed that Macedonians were not true Greeks, but barbarians - non-ethnically Macedonians living on the borders – much fighting of mountainous groups - traditional capital is Aigeai – moves to Pella at a later date Philip II - takes the throne in 359 B.C. - lots of problems – different groups opposed to him - problems: • Illyrians • Paeonians • Thracians • Athenians - Athens – because they have interest up north – want to control the coastline - also internal politics/problems - ways Philip manages problems – manipulation of royal marriages to create alliances - marriages to women outside the Macedonian kingdom - Molossian royal family claims descent from Achilles through Neoptolamus - marriages: • Audata the Illyrian • Phila the Elimiotian • two Thessalian women • Olympias the Molossian • Meda the Thracian - Olympias – mother of Alexander the Great - networks through marriage – is done repeatedly throughout the course of Philip’s rule - Alexander is not the only claimant to the throne – many other children Philip and Athens - Philip is able to manipulate Athens - takes different cities – Athens is engaged in warfare with allies at the time – “Social War” - Athens – Social War – 357-355 B.C. - Philip as militarily minded – uses an opportunity to control the coastlines around the Macedonian kingdoms - Successes: • Amphipolis – 357 B.C. • Pydna – 357 B.C. • Potidaea – 356 B.C. • Methone – 354 B.C. - Philip also distributes land conquered to supporters – not just rue but also creating a network of supporters - Greek supporters – drawn to Philip because he can reward them Athenian Social War - takes place 357-355 B.C. - Second “Delian” Sea League - set up by Athens in 378 B.C. - allies are free and autonomous, no garrisons, officers, or tribute - prevent Athens from taking too much control - purely voluntary league of naval power – Sparta still a predominant power during this time - Sparta still has power and authority – fairly ruthless therefore create league - withdrawal from league in 378 B.C. – Byzantium, Chios Rhodes, and Cos - withdraw and begin raiding territories – begin a war - second sea league is destroyed – Athens loses many allies - Athenian fleet is defeated in 357 B.C. - Persian king intervenes and forces peace in 355 B.C. Macedonian Phalanx - Philip improves upon the military organization in Macedon - sarisa/sarissa – longer spear used - sarisa as 4-6 m long, very heavy, and requiring skill to use - requires training to use the lance – increasing professionalization of military - shield is smaller and hangs around the neck/shoulder – must use two hands for the spear - more flexible than the traditional phalanx – more lightly armed in a way - multiple ranks of spears protruding from the front rank - more difficult to defeat – becomes the way of fighting in the Hellenistic Period until the Roman Period - Macedonian cavalry also uses the long lance – not just an infantry tactic Sacred Wars - Philip – savvy about Greek politics - series of wars - so-called “Sacred Wars” – centered around the Delphic oracle - Third Sacred War – Phokians and Thessalians - council – concerning Delphic affairs - council – power to fine – Phokians are fined - fine – for cultivating land that belongs to the god Apollo - Phokians live west of Delphi - Phokians occupy Delphi in 356 B.C. - occupy and melt down money, coins, gold dedications – hire mercenaries with the money - Phokians march on the Thessalians with the hired mercenaries - Thessalians call on Philip for help - Thessalians are part of the council - Philip defeats the Phokians – 353-352 B.C. - idea of “defending” Delphi – makes Philip look good - Fourth Sacred War – concerning the city of Amphissa - Amphissa is fined - Philip is called in to deal with the problem - by this time, Philips is appointed as military leader of the Thessalians - Athenians do not trust Philip because they realize that he is a threat - after fixing the problems, Philip turns onto Elatea - Thebes and Athens ally to march on Philip Battle of Chaeronea - takes place in 388 B.C. - continuation of the Fourth Sacred War in a way - Thebes and Athens march on Philip after he turns onto Elatea - last major battle Philip has to fight - battle secures the mainland for Philip - uncertain exactly what occurred – dispute in sources - Alexander the Great’s first major battle - major victory for Philip - most of the Sacred Band is killed – about 250 of the 300 die - Philip advances on Athens and then pulls back - Athenians rush to engage – think that they are retreating - Creates a hole in the line, which Alexander exploits - Alexander liked to engage only a part of the enemy army and create a hole in their line – use cavalry to exploit brief holes in the line - battle basically gives Greece to Philip - monument to the Theban war dead – the Sacred Band – lion monument Corinthian League - league created in 338/7 B.C. - Philip creates the league to enforce a common peace - council of representatives - purpose – gather military contributions for war against the Persian king - idea to attack Persian Empire as punishment for Persian Wars – punishment for profaning Greek temples - Philip is “elected” to be the strategos autokrator of Greece - strategos autokrator – “supreme commander” - invasion of Persia is planned for 335 B.C. - Philip perhaps sees this as an opportunity to portray himself as a “defender” of Greece - Philip is killed before invading Persia - killed in 336 B.C. by a man named Pausanias - Pausanias – gang raped by Philip’s uncle-in-law - Pausanias is also killed shortly thereafter - Philip is killed while entering the theatre to attend the wedding of one of his daughters to the brother of Alexander’s mother Philip II: Appraisal - remarkable achievements - Sparta were the only ones not to surrender to Philip – but they did not matter as they were no longer powers - powerful army – use of the sarissa - politically savvy – strategic marriages and invasions at the right times - gold and silver – tries to control mines on the edge of Macedonia - “buys” himself political friends to expand and consolidate his network - use of gold and silver to cement friendships - basilikoi paides – take royal children of Macedonian families to be educated in the royal court – creates a network of aristocratic children who see Philip as a father-figure - connects aristocratic houses to him - use of children as “hostages” – people will not openly be against Philip because he has their children - use of land to attract retainers Alexander III - declared king at age 20 upon the death of his father in 336 B.C. - Greek cities rise against Macedon – Alexander must move quickly to put down the revolt - Alexander is effective in showing leniency and keeping cities in line - Thebes – rises in revolt the first time and Alexander spares them – second
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