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BIO220 Lectur 5 notes.docx

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Doug Thomson

BIO220 Lecture 5 – January 24, 2011 Cooperation, Conflict, and Levels of Selection Parent-offspring conflict:  Benefits – offspring is richer  Costs – siblings are poorer  When parents and siblings weigh costs and benefits differently, conflict arises.  Underlying trade-off with offspring-parent conflict o Parents should maximize benefits- costs  Offspring point of view o The individual may increase its own reproduction rate but it decreases the chance of future siblings o Future offspring are only related by 50% so when maximizing, offspring should subtract only half of the cost from its benefits  Parents point of view o Mother weighs costs of future offspring the same as current offspring o The costs of future offspring in a graph has a straighter line because the mother can produce many offspring  The offspring wants more than the parent is willing to give Parent-parent conflict:  Conflict over caring for a set of offspring – each parent is equally related to offspring  Who should have to provide care? o Mammals – females care, no male care  Costs and benefits of deserting o When female have lower rate of reproduction, they have high cost to deserting, so females provide care o When females can find many other mates, benefit of deserting is high, because they have high rate of reproduction, so males provide care o KENTISH PLOVER EXPERIMENT #1  If it takes a long time to remate, benefits of deserting are low
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