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Lecture 11

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University of Toronto St. George
Doug Thomson

BIO220 Lecture 11 – Asher Cutter Ecology and Evolutionary Change Genomes are Mosaics Total DNA = Genome - Mitochondria - Chloroplasts - Sex chromosomes o Layering of genetic material o Moth females often have a “w” chromosome - Autosomes o High and low levels of recombination o All population members will have these autosomes Genome Transmission How can we uses gemone data? - We can use mtDNA to track maternal lineage - We can use y chromosome to track paternal lineages - Observations: elephants o Fluid social system – females live in small groups with other related females from their maternal lineage o Males do not join other groups o Males can detect females ready to reproduce from far distances  Can be attracted to females that live in a group from which they belong  Males will still reproduce when their daughters are mature  Do male elephants avoid inbreeding?  Yes –because inbreeding depression is very severe --viability and survival of offspring is much less compared to non-inbred offspring  We cannot do experiments on elephants because they are not good models, however we can use genetic markers  The litmus test: 3do males behave in a way that suggests inbreeding avoidance
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