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Lecture 10

BIO220 Lecture 10 February 9.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Doug Thomson

BIO220 Lecture 10 February 9, 2012 Final Topics in Evolutionary Medicine The phage in bacteria is what is toxic—when you get a shot, you get a piece of that phage Vaccination Smallpox : - The first vaccination to be developed - Jenner discovered that milk maids were immune to smallpox - Milk maids instead acquired cow pox, which gave immunity to small pox Vaccines should be created as a selective force on a pathogen itself Case Studies Hepatitis B virus - If there is selection against one type by this vaccine, then the other type should increase this frequency Malaria - If you have a pathogen that has many variants, it will be difficult to create a vaccination Diptheria - We do selection experiment and we favour a variant that is actually beneficial to treating the disease Can vaccines alter the course of the evolution of their targets? - Sort existing strain, favour non-vaccine strain Why does vaccination work so well despite evolution? - Not all infectious diseases are the same - Develop acute characteristics that either kill the host quickly or are easily cleared - Pathogens are still out there because they are exploiting susceptible individuals such as children who have never been exposed
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