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Lecture 4

Lecture 4 and 5 Readings.docx

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Jennifer Harris

Lecture 4 and 5 Readings Pg 13041314 Development of Multicellular Organisms An animal plant starts it life as a fertilized eggCell divides repeatedly to produce many different cells Cells differ bc they have different specialized genes1 Cell proliferation producing many cells that are different from one another2 Cell specialization creating cells that have different characteristics in different positions 3 Cell interaction coordinating the behaviour to match neighbours cells4 Cell movement rearrangement of cells to form structure tissuesDevelop embryos can happen all at once Universal Mechanisms of Animal Development Many different species that varyProteins from different species can function within other species Animals Share Some Basic Anatomical FeaturesWe know the similarities between species Cells must differentiate to have different layers Protective outer layer gut to absorb food and muscles to moveFeatures are common to all animals Cell has material that cleaves to form smaller cellsEctodermthe precursor of the epidermis and nervous system Endoderm interior of the gut and appendages Mesoderm precursor of muscles and connective tissuesGastrulation ball into a structure of the gutEvolution is very diverse Multicellular Animal are Enriched in proteins Mediating Cell Interactions and Gene RegulationGenome sequencing reveals that there are similarities between speciesExamining the genome of the Drosophila C elegans and Homo sapiensRegulation DNA Defines the Program of Development Share essential cell types Proteins that are encoded are differentlyInstructions are needed to produce a multicellular organism Regulatory genes are associated with the different proteins encoded Manipulation of the Embryo Reveals the Interactions Between its Cells Anatomical changes the patterns cell divisions growth and movement Descriptive embryology track the different embryonic changesCell lineage tracing can trace the difference between embryos Studies of Mutant Animals Identify the Gene that Control Developmental processes Developmental genetics begins with studying mutants Genetic screens that compare parents and mutantsA cell make Developmental Decisions Long Before it shows a Visible Change
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