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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Chris Garside

Bio270 September 26, 2012  Reducing Energy o Reducing energy o Redox Status  High Energy Bonds o ATP is stored in a stable level in cells. 5mM in muscle cells o High AcetylCoA = High energy in cells  Mito Oxidative Metabolism o AcetylCoA is the main point of entry for mitochondrial energy producing pathways.  TCA cycle o 1 gtp is equivalent of 1 atp molecule o Amphibolic pathway = anabolic and catabolic  ETS o Series of redox reactions as electrons are passed from one place to another. o 3 complexes use energy from oxidation of nadh and nadh2 from the protons to pump energy, in order to produce ATP from ADP-Phosphorylation.  ATP Synthesis o Link through proto-motive force and not physically link.  Integration of Metabolic Pathways o ATP and oxygen is needed for energy to utilize from mitochondria. o High energy stimulates anabolic pathways, while low energy stimulates catabolic pathways. LECTURE 3  Cellular Membranes o Glyco-lipids are found outside of the membrane  Membrane structure o Amphipatic – both hydrophilic and hydrophobic  Liquid profile affects membrane properties o Cholesterol – enhances fluidity at low temperature, while inhibits fluidity at high temperature.  If both molecules are squeezed together, Van der waals force increases.  Membrane Heterogeneity o Lipid rafts  Temp and membrane fluidity o Cold temperature increase van der waals forces between lipids and restrict movement, while warm temperature decreases van der waals forces and causes movement.  Membrane proteins o Two types  Integral – pass completely to membrane called transmembrane proteins. Not all of them are tmp, it can be embedded only to it. Tmp are amphiphatic.  Peripheral - weak bonds and not embedded on the membrane.  Membrane transport o Lipid soluble solute can pass through the membrane (passive diffusion). o Facilitated Diffusion  Channel is like a gate passage  Permease is like an enzyme o High concentration to low concentration movement. No energy is required. o Active transport  ATP Hydrolysis  Passive diffusion o No energy needed. o Net flow from high concentration to low concentration. o No specific transporters needed.  Facilitated diffusion o No energy required but protein transporter needed. o 3 Protein carriers  Ion channels  gated channels  Porins  like ion channels but for larger molecules.  Permeases  acts like an enzyme, has affinity constant. A conformational change causes the channeling to occur.  Ion channels o 3 types  Voltage gated – change of voltage across the membrane leading to opening of the gate. Eg. Potassium channel  Ligand gated – binds to channel and opens ga
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