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Lecture 9

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Andre Belotto Da Silva

Similarities between Endocrine system and nervous system  Relies on chemical that bind to receptor on target cells  Share the same messenger (norepinephrine and epinephrine (can act as either a neurotransmitter or/and hormone))  Negative feedback  Preserves homeostasis Endocrine Hormone Effects Organs Tropic hormones (ADH, Regulation of anterior Hypothalamus oxytocin, regulatory pituitary hormones) Posterior pituitary: oxytocin, Breast and uterus (mammals) & social behaviours Water reabsorption in vasopressin, vasotocin excretory system Milk production, Anterior pituitary: prolactin, osmoregulation Pituitary gland growth hormone (GH), Growth and metabolism adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Thyroid stimulating hormone Synthesis and release of thyroid hormone (TSH) Follicle stimulating hormone Egg or sperm production (FSH) Sex hormone Luteinizing hormone (LH) Egg or sperm production Thyroxine (T4) Metabolism, growth and Thyroid gland Triiodothyronine (T3) development Calcitonin (CT) Regulation of plasma CA2+ Thymus Thymosin & thymopoitin Immune system Suprarenal medulla: Suprarenal norepinephrine and Stress response gland epinephrine Suprarenal cortex Ion regulation stress response Aldosterone & androgens metabolism, sex drive (fem) Pineal gland Melatonin Circadian and seasonal rhythms Parathyroid Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Regulates plasma Ca2+ and gland phosphate Natriuretic peptides: Regulation of sodium levels in Heart Atrial natriuretic peptide blood (ANP) Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) Kidney Erythropoletin (EPO) RBC production Calcitriol Adipose tissue Leptin Food intake metabolism reproduction Pancreatic islets Insulin Regulation of blood glucose Glucagon and other nutrients Digestive tract Numerous hormones Testes: Sperm production, secondary Gonads Androgens, inhibin sexual characteristics Ovaries: Egg production and secondary Estrogen, progestin, inhibin sexual characteristics Chemical signals are released into the blood Since chemical messengers, receptor and cell signaling is similar in humans and other animals this suggests that we share a common ancestor Hormones that have a long-term effect Corpus cardiacum = where cells are synthesized Corpus allatum = chemicals are stored The brain (PTTH) can send nerve signals to either the corpora allata or the prothoracic glands The corpora allata – releases juvenile hormone (in the larva (high), caterpillar (high) and pupa stage (low)) = allows the insect to stay juvenile The prothoracic glands – releases molting hormone (in the caterpillar, pupa and adult stage) = allows the animal to shed skin and change form (metamorphosis) Some hormones will have the same effect in different animals (GH increase growth rate in humans and fish) Some hormones have different effects in different animals (prolactin stimulates milk produc
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