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BIO270 Lecture 1.doc

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Department
Biology
Course
BIO271H1
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Wednesday, September 9, 2009 BIO270 Lecture 1 C H A P T E R 1 BIO270 Animal Physiology 1 Prof. Joan Forder, PhD PPowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Stephen Gehnrich, Salisbury University Copyright © 2008 Pearson EducammingsInc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cu Announcements **Pre labs begin next week!!** - Labs do not really correlate with what we’re doing in the • Remember to read the course outline as it describes how the labs and lab groups are set up lectures at that time. • Remember to refer to the lab and pre-lab schedules • Your lab group designations will be posted on the website by the end of the week • Make sure you know your lab group designation as the first lab sessions begin next week • You need to see Peggy if you have a conflict or have not registered for a lab yet • The course is very full and lab section choices are extremely limited! • Any questions/concerns, please contact Peggy Salmon [email protected] Copyright © 2008 Pearson EducammingsInc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cu Animal Physiology 1 - The unifying themes in physiology are important because we’re going to be following them throughout the whole course so when FFirst Lecture we look at each area in the course, we’re going to say how do Chapter 1 OOrientation those refer back to the unifying themes & where do they come up UUnifying Themes with those ideas, why are they unifying themes? PPhysical & History of Overview Chemical PPhysiology Of Syllabus Properties RRegulation WWhat is Physiology? AAncient Times Phenotype Greek and Phenotype RRoman What are the Renaissance Subdisciplines? Genotype Subdisciplines? && Evolution 11500’s till now 2/66 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cu mmings This lecture will introduce you to my section of the course. We will start with an orientation that includes an overview of the syllabus and then delve into the questions, “What is physiology?” and “What are the sub-disciplines in physiology?” We will then look at the unifying themes found in physiology since they form the basis for all our explorations. In the second half of this lecture, we will take a trip back in time to point out the key historical events that lead to these unifying themes. Ready? Let’s begin! ORIENTATION TO THE COURSE 1. Overview of the syllabus 2. What is physiology? 3. What are the sub -disciplines? 3/66 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Educatimmingsc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cu Learning Objectives By completing this Lecture, you will be able to : • Define physiology • Appreciate the scope and Understand why we use animal models to study physiology • depth of physiology • Describe the key events in the history of physiology • Understand the unifying themes in physiology and how they emerged 4/66 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cu mmings By completing this tutorial, you will be able to: Appreciate the interconnectedness of the nervous and endocrine systems Describe the structures and functions of the main endocrine glands Understand the influence of the endocrine system on behavior List the components of the endocrine system and their corresponding effects on behavior Textbook: “Principles of Animal Physiology” by Christopher D. Moyes & Patricia M. Schulte; 2nd edition. The main ideas of physiology and the contribution of experimenta tion to our understanding of life processes. Uses examples from homeostasis and the endocrine system. Accompanying laboratories reinforce the concepts introduced in lecture and teach relevant technique.” DISCLAIMER Lecture content does not match laboratory topics Copyright © 2008 Pearson Educatimmingsc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cu *** Prerequisite: BIO150Y1 *** IF YOU DO NOT HAVE THIS PLEASE SEE ME AFTER CLASS Prof. Joan P Forder, PhD Office hours: Wednesdays 1:30-2:30 pm, room RW330 [email protected] Lecture notes will be uploaded onto site at least 24 hrs prior to lecture whenever possible NOTE: THESE ARE TO ASSIST YOU ONLY AND WILL NOT BE COMPLETE 6/66 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Immingsublishing as Pearson Benjamin Cu th - She’s going to be lecturing for 5 weeks and the 6 week there is Where does this Course Fit In? going to be a midterm exam in class time. Physiology Content BBIO270 TThird Year Prof. Lovejoy & Beyond Prof. Lovejoy BIO270 Prof. Forder Nervous System Prof. Forder Nervous System EEndocrine Neuroendrocrinology Digestion CChem, Biochem IIntroduction && Cell SSpecialties MMovement Reproduction LLocomotion TThermal 7/66 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Immingsublishing as Pearson Benjamin Cu List of Dr. Forder’s Lectures* - She doesn’t have the specific page numbers yet b/c she doesn’t know how detailed she wants to get, but she will let us know if there are pages we don’t need to know. Month Date Day ChapterTopic - Today’s lecture is in Chapter 1. Sept 9 Wednesday 1 Orientation; Physiology, Past and Present; Unifying Themes 16 Wednesday 2 Chemistry, Biochemistry and Cell Physiology 23 Wednesday 5 Cellular Movement and Muscles 30 Wednesday 12 Locomotion Oct 7 Wednesday 13 Thermal Physiology 14 Wednesday Midterm * Disclaimer: The above schedules, procedures and policies are s ubject to change in the event of extenuating circumstances. 8/66 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Immingsublishing as Pearson Benjamin Cu Midterm Examination • October 14 , during class time • Note: There will be no make up test for the mid-term. If a student misses the test for a valid reason, and provides the appropriate documentation, then the value of their final exam will be increased to 70%. • Students who do not provide proper documentation within one week of missing the test will receive a grade of zero for the mid-term and their final exam will be worth 45%. • Students must follow the rules of the Faculty of Arts and Science in regards to missing term tests and providing documentation. http://www.artsandscience.utoronto.ca/ofr/calendar/rules.htm#ter m 9/66 Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings How To Study Physiology - Connect Concepts: Physiology is a discipline where there is a Concepts First lot of dynamics & interaction, a lot of synergy happening in the Take Breaks Often Understand key concepts first body & it’s important to understand the concepts as they relate to Resthat people learn before trying to memorize best in short bursts. details each other. - Attend Lectures: She does a lot of interactive stuff that you use Mind Mapping Talk out loud to connect the can’t get from just the lectures. information out concepts together loud helps to **After lectures, she will post the entire lectures with the lock it into your Review Often clicker questions and answers included.** memory. Review before going on. Use a - Sleeping helps you retain information. Quiz Yourself “Cheat Sheet”! Use the questions provided with each Make use of the lectures and chapter to test your clicker to answer “What 10/66 yourself. did I just learn?” Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings Studying physiology involves a great deal if information from a variety of sources. It can become overwhelming….but studying hard is not necessary…if you study smart. Smart studying involves a number of key techniques. 10 Body Systems and Their Functions - Integumentary: your skin, that’s all over your whole body. - Musculoskeletal: all over your whole body as well.  Integumentary(skin): covers - Respiratory: taking in air, and expelling air as well.  Musculoskeletal: support & movement - Digestive: taking in food & water & getting rid of the waste 4 exchange between internal & external  Digestive: nutrients & water, waste product.  Urinary: removes excess water & waste - Urinary: taking in water & again, excreting it out of the body.  Reproductive: produces eggs or sperm - Reproductive: you have openings in the body and things do  Circulatory: distributes materials  Nervous: coordinate body functions come out.  Endocrine: coordinate body functions - Circulatory: is inside your body but all through it.  Immune: protect interior - Those that extend throughout the body are inside & don’t tend to have a lot of contact with the outside world. 11/66 **Good testable question would be to ask for one of these or Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings Activity: Can you name the 10 body systems and which one of these doesn’t belong? Need to know these 10 body systems.** their functions? What is Physiology? - Over time there have been different types of definitions of physiology. “knowledge of nature” - Aristotle: His definition doesn’t really help to pinpoint it down, Aritostle (384-322 BC) but it sounds very noble. - Hippocrates: He was mainly into the whole idea of medical so “the healing power of nature” Hippcrates (ca. 460-377 BC) he had a different take on it. **Definition in red is testable.** DEFINITION: - The working definition encompasses not just the 10 body The study of the normal functioning of a living organism systems but all the way down to what are the chemical & and its component parts, including all its chemical and physical properties within them. physical processes Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings Physiology - A more modern definition is “the study of how animals work”. - Anatomy is dealing with the structures involved; physiology “The study of how animals work” tends to be the functions. One of the basic premises of Knut Schmidt-Nielsen (1915–2007) physiology in any science is that function follows structure, what the function is going to be depends on what the structures are like Structure and function of various parts – one of the things they’ve done in science is looked at different  How these parts work together structures & try to figure out what the function might be. Diversity of animals - There is also the concept that there is a huge diversity of  More than 1 million species live on Earth animals – there’s a huge # of animals on the planet & one of the Unifying themes things in physio that we look at is that over the 1 million species  Apply to all physiological processes that live on earth, what are the commonalties & what is unique Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings that mean about their functioning & how they’ve adapted to the environment that they’re in so what does that mean about our bodies & how our functions work? It’s important to be looking at these other animals to see what the commonalities are, why do we work the way we do? Physiological Sub-disciplines - There are sub-disciplines/specialties in physio but there are different ways of categorizing them so different people influence the way that physio is thought of & taught & they would have Based on  Biological level of organization different concepts of how to categorize the sub-disciplines.  Process that causes physiological variation - Levels of organizations: down from atoms & molecules to cells,  Ultimate goals of the research through tissues, through organs to organisms to ecology and the  Many physiological questions encompass elements whole environment. from each subdiscipline - Ultimate goals of the research: Ex – disease treatment/medical reasons, pure curiosity to further knowledge of the field for future applications. - The sub-disciplines tend to overlap a little bit. 14/66 Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings Biological Level of Organization - Type of physiologists that there are. - Cell & molecular: the physiology that they work with is more  Cell and molecular physiology on the cellular level, how the functioning of the cells & the organelles metabolism, molecules will affect the function of the organism. - Systems: the 10 systems of the body; they tend to focus on one  Systems physiology  Function of organs of those systems & they tend to connect with other things as well.  Organismal physiology - Organismal: looking at the whole animal & how they fit into  Whole animal their environment & how they work in their environment.  Ecological physiology  Animal and its - Ecological: how the animals affect the environment & how the environment environment affects the animal – they look at it from both points  Integrative physiology  Multiple levels of of view depending what their main passion/focus is. 15/66 organization Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings Atoms  Molecules  Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ Systems  Organisms  Populations  Communities  Ecosystems  Biosphere Biological Level of Organization - Reductionism: the theory there is that if you take something apart into its smaller parts & study the parts, you’ll figure out Physiologists often study processes at more than one how the whole organism works. Unfortunately, that doesn’t level always work b/c there are the emerging properties that together  Reductionism – understand a system by studying when things are together, there are properties that you cannot the function of its parts predict from looking at the individual parts.  Emergence – the whole is more than the sum of its parts Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings Process that Causes Physiological Variation - Developmental: from the embryo up to *senescence* & then into death; how the animal will change.  Developmental physiology  Change as animal grows  Environmental physiology  Change in response to environment  Evolutionary physiology  Change due to natural selection 17/66 Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings - We tend to use different animals for different types of focus in Ultimate Goals of the Research physio so there are a # of different ones that we have.  Pure physiology  No specific goal, other than knowledge  Applied physiology  Medical physiology  Comparative physiology  August Krogh principle – “For every biological system there is an organism on which it can be most conveniently studied” 18/66 Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings Unifying Themes in Physiology - Depending on what kind of research you want, what kind of system you want to look at, there are a number of possibilities & all of them you use specifically, so when somebody does a study, they’re not just arbitrarily using that animal, they actually have to justify why they want to use that animal & convince the proper authorities that it’s the right animal to use. - Some of that goes by what’s been done in the past to look at that area & some of it needs to justify a specific system or a August Krogh Principle specific chemical or process that’s going on that they want to study. Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings “For every biological system there is an organism on which it can be most conveniently studied” Its Clicker Time! Introduction to Physiology Get ready! 20/66 Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings 1. Each of the following body systems are involved in exchange between the external and internal environments EXCEPT for: A. Digestion B. Respiratory C. Circulatory D. Reproductive Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings - The blood stays within the body. Explanation: C The body systems involved in exchange between the external and internal environments include: A. Digestion B. Respiratory D. Reproductive Plus the urinary system. The cardiovascular system is a closed 23/66 system that circulates within the body. Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings 2. Who was it that defined physiology as “the study of how animals work”? A. Aristotle B. Knut Schmidt-Nielsen C. Hippocrates D. William Harvey 24/66 Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings Explanation: B It was Knut Schmidt-Nielsen who defined physiology as “the study of how animals work”. • A. Aristotle used the definition,“knowledge of nature” • C. Hippocrates used the definition,“the healing power of nature”. • D. We haven’t discussed William Harvey’s contribution yet! 25/66 Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings 3. A marine mammal physiologist is an example of which categorization type? A. Organismal Physiologist B. Systems Physiologist C. Developmental Physiologist D. Evolutionary Physiologist 26/66 Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings - He’s studying the organism & the environment & focusing on the organism itself. Explanation: A A marine mammal physiologist studies a particular group of animals and is most often concerned with the way an intact animal undertakes a specific process or behavior. B. A systems physiologists will focus on one system in an organism (such as the cardiovascular system. C. A developmental physiologist will study how an organism changes over time from an embryo to a maturity and into senescence. D. An evolutionary physiologist is more focused on how specific physiological traits arise within lineages . 27/66 Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings History of Physiology 1. Ancient Times 2. Greek and Roman Influences 3. Middle Ages and the Renaissance 4. Finding Errors 5. Modern Explosion Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings The History of Physiology - This is an overview looking at the different times. - Unchanged: just before 100 AD up until just near the end of the 13 century, there was nothing new in physiology. B.C. A.D. 500 400300 10010001200 140015001600 18001900NOW - Then we start again, & it starts advancing, getting more & more info & moving forward beyond that, some of the key ideas, into the sub-disciplines. Ancient Greece Renaissance Theory Sub - Physiology, especially *neurophysiology* didn’t really become Disciplines a discipline of its own until about the 1970s. Roman Empire Middle Ages:Harvey Influence Homeostasis Unchanged Finding Errors 22/66 Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings In order to aide you in your understanding of the time line for neuroscience, the following illustration has been developed. Let’s look at each of these in turn, starting back in ancient times. History of Animal Physiology: Ancient Times - Hippocrates: he was one of the 1 ones to look at careful observation, not just thinking about things but actually observing • Hippocrates (460–circa 377 B C.) things & from those observations, making up ideas & the theories  Father of medicine on exactly what was going on – observing what’s going on.  Careful observation - Aristotle: looking more at nature & how these relationships • Aristotle (384–322 B C .) worked b/w structure & function.  Father of natural history - Galen: he was taking care of a lot gladiators; his job was keep  Relationship between structure and function them alive & while he was doing that, he was learning about the • Claudius Galenus, “Galen” (129–circa 199) human body, how the blood worked & how to stop blood flow &  First experimental physiologist severed limbs, & also he was doing some animal studies & try to  Founder of physiology figure out the similarities b/w them, how to work with the animals in order to better serve the humans – he did a lot of Copyright© 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cmumings experimental work to try out things on animals to see how they would affect them. History of Animal Physiology: Middle Times - Galen had an awful lot of theories & observations & experimentation that he did & he came up with a whole bunch of • Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288) ideas & for a long time, over a thousand years, everybody believed it, that he was right about everything.  Anatomy of heart and lungs • Jean-Francois Fernal (1497–1558) - Nafis: It was not until we go to the Muslim community where  Outlined current knowledge of human health and they started to question things in the middle of the 13 century, th disease he was looking more at & actually outlined very specifically the • Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) anatomy of the heart & the lungs and how they worked – this is a  First modern anatomy textbook st really good contribu
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