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Lecture 1

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University of Toronto St. George

Lecture 1 Structure & Function of Neurons; Actions Potentials Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Organization of the Nervous System o Made up of neurons and glia o Neurons can be further divided Sensory neurons provide input (external or internal world) Interneurons perform computational processing Motor neurons efferent fibers, provide output from brain Neurons o Vary in structure and properties o Use same basic mechanisms to send signals o **Neurons vary in shape and size, but most neurons are divided into four functional regions, each specialized for a particular task; signal reception, signal integration, signal conduction, or signal transmission to other cells o Signal reception reception of input from outside world, receives signals o Signal integration integration of signal o Signal conduction conducts integrated signals along the neuron, potentials across long distances o Signal transmission neurons transmits signal to effector or to next neuron o Therefore, signals are transmitted from one end of the neuron to the other, but not in the opposite direction (specific polarity in neuron) Neural Zones o Four functional zones motor neuron (sends signals from CNS to skeletal muscles, control animal movement) Signal reception Dendrites and the cell body (soma) Incoming signal received and converted to change in membrane potential Signal integration Axon hillock located at junction of the cell body and the axon; incoming signals from dendrites and the cell body are conducted to the axon hillock
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