CSB325 Lecture 9 Review Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Cell and Systems Biology
David Lovejoy

CSB325 Lecture 9 – Reproduction - Sertoli cells SEG o Secrete minor amounts of estrogens (and inhibin) Ovary o Analogous to the granulosa cells of the ovary - Folliculogenesis (follicular maturation) o Found inside of the seminiferous tubules (e.g., internal to the o Primordial follicle (one layer of granulosa cells)  primary follicle basal lamina) (cuboidal granulosa cells)  secondary follicle (thecal cells, - Myoid cells and fibroblasts are also found outside of the seminiferous multiple layers of granulosa cells)  formation of antrum  tubules (e.g., external to the basal lamina) ovulation  formation of corpus luteum  degradation of corpus Hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis luteum - The gonads act to regulate the synthesis and release of the neuropeptides o Corpus luteum by a steroid feedback mechanism  Responsible for the production of estradiol and - The male and female neuroendocrine circuits are similar progesterone after ovulation in order to inhibit further - Males cycles in anticipation of pregnancy, where estradiol and o Hypothalamus  GnRH  anterior pituitary  LH and FSH  progesterone will be produced by the placenta testis  testosterone, inhibin - Thecal cells TAL  Testosterone provides the NEGATIVE feedback to GnRH o Two layers are found, the theca interna and the theca externa and LH/FSH o Synthesize androgens  Inhibin provides a NEGATIVE feedback to FSH o Analogous to the Leydig cells of the testes  Sertoli cells secrete inhibin o External to the basement membrane of the follicle - Females - Granulosa cells GES o Hypothalamus  GnRH  anterior pituitary  LH and FSH  o Secrete estrogens (and inhibin), after receiving androgens from ovary  progesterone, inhibin, estrogen the thecal cells  During the follicular phase, estrogens provides a o Analogous to the Sertoli cells of the testes POSITIVE feedback to GnRH and LH/FSH o Internal to the basement membrane of the follicle  After ovulation, estrogens and progesterone provides a Testes NEGATIVE feedback to GnRH and LH/FSH - Spermatogenesis (sperm maturation)  Inhibin provides a NEGATIVE feedback to FSH o Spermatogonia (germ cells)  mitosis  primary spermatocyte  Granulosa cells secrete inhibin  first meiotic division  secondary spermatocyte  second  Inhibin is secreted more during the luteal phase mitotic division  spermatids  spermatozoa (sperm cells) (after ovulation) o Spermatogonia (germ cells) - In males and females, it is not clear whether inhibin has an effect on GnRH
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