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Cell and Systems Biology
Barsyte- Lovejoy D

Lecture 1 Study of Endocrinologyendocrinology secretions from ductless glands Claude Bernardphysiological goal of secretions maintain a physiological balance homeostasis within an organism1 Philosophical Aspectsmolecules were produced by one cell type to signal to another cell typecelltocell and tissuetotissue communicationinformation theory endocrinology and signaling molecules are associated with the transfer of information from one tissuecell to another tissuecellstudy of endocrinology involves homeostasis cell signaling communication information transferchemical signalinformation transfer o inputsignal generatorsignal receiveroutputany cell that has the capability for paracrine secretion had the potential to become an endocrine cell o these cells were present in all basic tissue types of Metazoansall tissues had the capability of becoming endocrine organs o all organs by definition can be considered endocrine organsOrigins of Chemical Communicationearly cells living in primordial seas developed receptors for recognition of watersoluble toxins AND nutrients as well as internal receptors for lipids that allows for efficient transfer through the membraneearly cells also released special molecules into the environment that were detected via receptors on other cellsServed as a mechanism for celltocell communicationany molecule excreted by one cell to anotherbioregulatorhormoneelicits a responseHormone Evolutionatmospheric layers were laid down from organisms that breathed out oxygen 2 billion years agosignaling and information transfer are crucial to the development of an organism2 Definition of Hormonesa hormone is a signaling molecule released by a tissue into the blood stream and interacts with another tissuehormone from the word exciteexerts its effects on a distant tissuerequirement to get into the blood streamEndocrine Processes and Types of Cell Signaling Mechanisms intracrine autocrine paracrine cytocrine endocrine neuroendocrine cytocrineparacrine uses local circulationa cell signals to adjacent cell using extracellular matrix or bloodendocrine endocrine gland releasing hormone into general circulationneuroendocrine some neurons can secrete molecules into the general circulation but can act as a hormone o sensory cell can be a neuronBioregulator Organizationchemical communication involves neurocrines neurotransmitters or neuromodulators AND neurohormones hormones and autocrineparacrine regulators
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