Lecture 13 Notes on Xenopus development March 7, 2011.doc

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Cell and Systems Biology
Maurice Ringuette

Lecture 13 Notes March 7 2011Early Amphibian DevelopmentthVerbatim from Developmental Biology 7 Ed Gilbert S Sinauer Chapter 10 with some minor modifications and information unrelated to the lecture removedEarly development and axis formation in amphibiansAmphibian embryos frogs and salamanders were the organisms of choice for the pioneering days of experimental embryology because of their numerous advantages large egg size external development in vitro fertilization of a large number of eggs that undergo synchronous development identifiable blastomeres ability to withstand surgical procedures and culture in vitroDespite these advantages amphibian embryos during the 1980s and 1990s fell out favor because of the genetic advantages that other experimental organisms eg mouse zebrafish C elegans Drosophila frogs and salamanders undergo a long period of growth before they become fertile and their chromosomes are often found in several copies precluding easy mutagenesisHowever new molecular techniques such as in situ hybridization antisense oligonucleotides and dominant negative proteins have allowed
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