Lecture 16 Somitogenesis and neural crest cell migration March 21, 2011.doc

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Cell and Systems Biology
Maurice Ringuette

1Lecture 16March 21 2011EphEphrin signaling1 Somitogenesis and intersomitic boundary formation2 Neural crest cell migrationNotes verbatim from cited literature with minor modificationsSomitogenesis and intersomitic boundary formationWatanabe Takahashi 2010 Tissue morphogenesis coupled with cell shape changes Current Opinion in GeneticsDevelopment 20443447When organogenesis proceeds in embryos a simple organ primordium progressively produces complex subtypes of tissues Such process is often enabled by a morphological segregation of newly forming tissues Tissue segregation is seen for instance during early brain formation where midbrain and hindbrain regions become distinct with a boundary between them Another striking example of tissue segregation is provided by the complete separation of newly formed somite from the unsegmented presomitic mesoderm PSM Figure 1 see slide This process is the main topic of this review In general tissue separation is often accompanied by robust changes in cell shape such as transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal states Tissue separation and its concomitant changes in cell shape need to be precisely coordinated because if such coordination were to fail the newly formed tissue would be distorted with incorrect morphological integrity Although there is much information about how transcriptional regulation determines organ development mainly with mutant model animals and how molecular signals regulate cell shape changesmainly with cultured cells in vitro it remains relatively unknown how cell shapes and tissue shapes coordinately change during morphogenesis Recently using somitic boundary formation in vertebrate embryos several groups have revealed novel mechanisms that enable the coordination between somitic boundary formation and concomitant cell epithelializa
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