Lecture 20.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Cell and Systems Biology
Francis Bambico

SA -> 10-12 questions and choose 5 format similar to midterm typo: decrease Ca conc LTP  Conductance for AMPA and NMDA; depends on the subunits  AMPA receptors can be permeable to Na, Ca, K  GluR2; if present -> not conductance/permeability to Ca  Video of a patient, Clive, who suffered encephamyelitis -> HPV infection caused it -> damaged his hippocampus  Problem in memory consolidation, like HM: o Anterograde amnesia – cannot retain new information for a long time o Graded level of retrograde amnesia o HM forgot 1-3 years just before the surgery but has retain some LT information 2 years before the surgery but could not recall anything in the 2 years before the surgery  Clive has a more severe form of amnesia  His hippocampi were affected and impaired  His capacity for maintaining ST memory was only for a few seconds  He also had complete retrograde amnesia; he remembered snippets of past memories but generally, his memory of his past life had been completely eradicated  He remembers his wife, he recognizes her and still retains his passion and love for her  Declarative is impaired -> he has a leisure  Procedural and implicit type of memories are retained  Procedural is retained by HM and Clive because this type of memory is subserved by the motor system Lecture 18-19, slide 27  The structures in the brain that is responsible of thoughtless movement is also where learning to improve on skills take place  Motor system is responsible for initiation of actions, whether conscious or not  Also where learning to improve skills/movement in sequences be habitual  Throw a frisbie – deflection and contraction of muscle is produced by signals/impulses originating from cortical areas responsible for controlling voluntary movement called M1 (primary motor cortex)  M1 contains pyramidal neurons with axons that travel down to brainstem, spinal cord (ventral region), and synapses with lower motor neurons form NMJ -> stimulate the muscles  This tract is called the pyramidal tract  Regions around primary motor cortex called motor association areas  Important in learning movement sequences include SMA and premotor cortex  What’s the significance of these structures? They direct the activity of the primary motor cortex  To instruct, they help coordinate movements/fine tunes movement;  These association areas taps information from other regions of the cerebral cortex including sensory cortices, such primary visual cortex via dorsal and ventral field  Also associated with emotional centres, primary auditory areas  Association areas are able to formulate motor sequences/plan that they will instruct the primary motor cortex to deploy  Eg. Driving: After receiving instructions on what to do, you are now able to integrate information from the outside  Premotor cortex is able to integrate information from diff sensory modalities  With help of supplementary motor area, these structures are able to organize a seq of instructions that would help the primary motor cortex to coordinate movement  SMA is internally generated, not driven by stimuli; SMA is able to help formulate motor sequences but based on internally generated cues (instincts)  SMA can sense expectations/consequences of your actions or also shaped by your overall mood  Eg. Want to punch a prof but you know you’ll get expelled  Research thinks SMA is the seat of the soul (not pineal gland) because that’s where intentions are generated  In these regions, there are a group of cells, recently discovered, called mirror neurons  Neurons that are located in association cortices; they fire and become active when you do something (sequence of actions)  Mirror neurons fire when parts of your body move and they also fire when you see somebody doing the same act  Performed the experience in monkeys; electrodes in the rhesus monkey and recorded neurons  In response to observation of another monkey doing something, these neurons fire  Another experiment where they treat the monkey to mimic the behavior and the same set of neurons fire the same fashion as when the monkey observed  Possible explanation for another type of learning -> observational learning; learning by mimicking  Have been thought to underlie social learning behavior  The cerebral structures are involved in initiation of motor seq  After receiving instructions (driver instructor), driving feels differently, almost automatically  Don’t have to invest your mental energies to coordinate visible information  This is when learning takes place
More Less

Related notes for CSB332H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.