CSB332 Lecture 15
- Rote learning might underlie the psychological reality behind non-associative LTP. Rote
rehearsal might be explained by these changes in the hippocampus referred to as non-
- If you are able to associative the narrative to a more meaningful context, then you can increase
the capacity of your memorization. Meaningful learning might underlie the psychological reality
behind the hippocampal changes associated with associative LTP.
- This represents a moderate stimulation associated with a lower type of stimulation because the
image is still not familiar to you. You don’t get exposed to this image very often and you don’t
see this image in the real world. The image is not as strong of stimulation. In order for you to
increase your memory or consolidation of the narrative, then you would have to repeat the
pairing over and over again. You have to pair the image with the narrative before you increase
your ability to memorize the narrative.
- The association can be between a strong emotion experienced at the time when an event
occurs. The emotion evoked by the twin tower attack is likely information that is coming from
the amygdala, which is where processing of emotional experiences occur. The pathway is highly
activated with the experience of a strong emotional event and when you associate it with
another event that mediates a weak stimulation, then you can still recall the weak stimulation
(e.g., what you were doing when the twin tower attack occurred). This is called flashbulb
- Extreme emotions and severe stress could impair and severely affect memory
- Non-associative and associative LTP are processes that occur in the brain. How is the brain able
to associate different events/percepts/information? How does the brain associate new
information with information already stored in memory? This is via higher order processing
called cortical/cognitive processing. This is possible because the brain consists of association
- Only a small portion of the brain is devoted to primary sensory processing (e.g., smell, taste,
motor cortex, and vision). The association areas are also adjacent to the different lobes of the
brain that are also responsible for multi-sensory/multi-modal association. Slide 13
- This is a brain with the different association areas. The deep white matter structures allow for
the communication for the different cerebral regions of the brain. Under the superficial gyri
layers of the brain, you will find a large network of association fibers that allow for intra-cerebral
synaptic connectivities between different areas of the brain.
- Superior longitudinal fasciculus allows for the communication between the frontal region and
the posterior region.
- Frontotemporal and arcuate fasciculus allows for the communication between the frontal areas
of the brain and the temporal regions of the brain.
- Inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus allows for the communication between the interior frontal
areas and the occipital cortex.
- Uncinate fasciculus allows for the communication between the frontal regions and the anterior
- Cerebral arcuate fibers (e.g., U-shaped fibers) allows for the communication between
neighbouring gyri or more superficial/lateral regions of the brain.
- Association fibers allows for communication between neighbouring regions within the same
hemisphere. Commissural fibers allow for communication of two similar/homologous regions of
the left and the right hemispheres of the brain.
- When light stimulus enters the eyes, the image is flashed onto the retina, information is relayed
from the retinal ganglion axons that make up the optic nerve, information from the optic nerve
is relayed to optic chiasm, then optic tract, then the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus,
which is the major sensory relay station of the brain. Neurons in the thalamus send axons
containing visual information to the visual cortex.
- The visual cortex is subdivided into the striate cortex, which is the primary visual cortex. It gets
information received from the visual stimulus about color, form, motion, movement. V1 sorts
that information and sends some of the cataloged information dorsally and ventrally. There are
two streams coming from the primary visual cortex. Information about form and motion
propagates along a dorsal stream. Information about color and form propagates along a ventral
- The dorsal stream and the ventral stream are polysynaptic axons. It is composed of many
synapses. In the dorsal stream, the information is delivered to the terminal regions in the
parietal cortex. In the ventral stream, the information is delivered to the infero-lateral and
infero-medial temporal cortices, which also contains the hippocampus.
o Dorsal stream = motion, location of the visual stimulus
o Ventral stream = color, form, identity of the visual stimulus - Akinetopsia is the inability to perceive movement. The person is only able to see snapshots of
certain scenarios. They are not able to perceive movement and motion of stimuli.
- Hemineglect is a condition when the person is able to perceive/identify the object, but the
person is unable to locate the object in 3D space. It might have something to do with the
distortion of the mental representation of 3D space. It might have something to do with the
impairment in attention such that the person isn’t able to pay attention to a specific stimulus at
a given time.
- Visual agnosia (e.g., psychic blindness) is the inability to identify/name the object, but the ability
to perceive where the object is. The person is able to avoid the obstacles in a hallway without
incurring any injury.
- Prosopagnosia is the inability to identify familiar faces (e.g., loved ones, relatives). The anterior
region of the gyrus in the inferior temporal cortex called the fusiform gyrus is damaged.
- The fusiform face area responds to faces. The parahippocampal place area responds to being in
different places at a given time.
- This is an fMRI scan of monkey’s brain. The researchers wanted to identify the exact region of
the temporal lobe that is responsive to faces. They showed the monkey both human and
monkey faces. They were able to pinpoint a region that is analogous to the fusiform area in
humans located in the anterior region of the inferotemporal lobe (labelled in yellow and red)
that are responsive to faces. Then they wanted to determine whether the neurons in the area
are responding specifically to facial stimuli. After they identified the structure, they lowered an
extracellular recording electrode into the fusiform face region and they recorded from different
neurons in the region while showing different visual stimuli.
- These are the responses of the neurons in the fusiform face area. The neurons increase their
firing activity if they have been shown pictures of faces of human and monkey. One bar
corresponds to one individual neuron. These neurons do not respond or have a low response to
stimuli from different mental categories (e.g., pictures of bodies, fruits, gadgets, etc.). The
neuron only specifically responds to faces.
- When information is received by the inferotemporal cortex, the image/percept is cast on the
inferotemporal cortex and the brain compares the image/percept to stored information already
in the inferotemporal cortex. There are templates of images already stored in the
inferotemporal cortex. The brain compares the new visual stimulus with information stored in
the inferotemporal cortex.
o There are two possibilities.
The brain compares the percept with stored information about definitional
features (e.g., features about a specific mental category). It analyzes the
features of the percept and compares it to a checklist of a few features that are
stored in the inferotemporal cortex that are necessary and required.
Definitional features are necessary and required features. It is an all-or-none
categorization or concept formation. The visual stimulus needs to contain all