CSB349 Lecture 2 Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Cell and Systems Biology
Alan Moses

CSB349 Lecture 2 NotesSlide 7Whats really in the human genomeThe sequenced part of the human genome is about 285 GigabasesThe true size of the genome is thought to be about 308 GigabasesSlide 8Whats really in the human genome55 of the genome are nontransposable elements45 of the genome are different types of transposable elements This does not include the other repetitive regions that couldnt be sequencedSlide 9Whats really in the human genomeThe vast majority of our genome is not human genesRepetitive transposable elements make up 45 of our genomeHuman genes eg protein coding genes make up 15 of our genome Slide 10Types of repetitive DNA sequencesThere are two major types of repetitive elements in our genome They are divided up based on the pattern of their distribution in the genome Tandemly repeated sequences are many repeats beside each other Interspersed repeated sequences are repeats that appear here and there amongst the unique part of the genome Slide 11Tandem repeatsTandem repeats are largely categorized based on size There are three major types Satellite DNAo Centromeres are the regions of the chromosome that are important for segregation of the chromosomes during meiosis and mitosis They are big structural parts of the chromosomeo They are heterochromatic They are a very compacted structural state of DNA o The repeat units can be 10 to 100 base pairs in size They can be copied millions of times o They make up a big part of the genome They can be really enormousMinisatellite DNA o Telomeres are the tips of the chromosomeso They are about 20000 base pairs longo The repeating unit can be up to 25 bp but they can also be a lot shorter eg 6 They are repeated hundreds of times in a rowMicrosatellite DNA o They are much smaller The repeating units are typically 2 or 3 bpo They are located in euchromatin They can be in normal accessible chromatin o They are highly variable This means that they are different between different people The number of repeats will be different between every person This can be used to tell people apart genetically
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