Lecture 23

12 Pages
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Department
Cell and Systems Biology
Course Code
CSB351Y1
Professor
Mounir Abou Haidar

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Description
thLecture 23 November 29 2007Everything will be written VERBATIMPages 139 140145 146 147 supl to 153 16 of 18 and 17 of 18page 139 or 60 of 166 in the pdf file 2109Lets continue please guys Influenza virus Were going to finish fast today Complication of influenza virus is Reyes syndrome Reyes syndrome is a rare but serious disease Sometimes it appears in children under the age of 20 When they are either infected by the chicken pox or the flu and they are associated with having aspirin they are going to take aspirin So it is not a clearcut connection but it might be a coincidence or not I dont know but it has been reported So what is Reye Syndrome It affects the brain and sometimes the liver and sometimes you have persistent vomiting for at least 12 hours or longer Clearly is it not a worldwide virus or whatever stomach flu is not the correct terminology anyway Then they have strange behaviour and also some aggressive behaviour The symptoms usually develop after 37 days of the viral illness In some cases the Reye Syndrome can lead to seizure a coma and possibly death It is rare but it is maybe associated maybe with influenza virus and chicken pox which we are going to see a bit later 315These are complications Antiviral agent I went through them a bit last time Antiviral agent like for the Influenza The most common one is the neuraminadase inhibitor which is the name of acyclovir and the trade name is tamiflu The TAMIFLU inhibits the neuroamindase which means the neuroamindase wont be able to cut the SIALIC acid into the release of the virus Amantadine and Rimantadine blocks the M2 was but is not anymore useful because it mutated and changes against the M2 the proton pump as you remember Page 139Alright now just the terminology You have a table like this which is fine I will never ask you how it is taken oral or by injection or whatever I dont care at least you know that it the most common one is the tamiflu or the most efficient one and soon it will probably not be efficient Alright now the GuillainBarre Syndrome which could be associated with the influenza virus but usually it is associated with a Duvenhage virus The GuillainBarre syndrome is a demyelination of the schwann cells Schwann cells are the cells that have myelin the fatty stuff in the brain which line the neurons It is like an electrical wire The copper inside the wire is the neurons the copper wire then the plastic around it is the schwann cells Those schwann cells which are myelinated cells Some virus such as the Duvenhage virus and maybe the influenza virus can reach the brain and can kill some of those cells So you get some short circuiting of the neuron and you get all kinds of symptoms but these are reversible because the neurons themselves are not destroyed only the schwann cell So those symptoms like for example paralysis descending paralysis There is ascending paralysis radiating pain in the arm and in the neck Then followed by agitation and increased respiration rate the muscle stops and in some extreme cases you have coma and death But those are usually quite reversible which means once the virus is gone the syndrome is generally reversed back because as I said there is no damage to the neuron So that is what it ends up with This is called a GuillainBarre Syndrome The Duvenhage virus is similar to the rabies virus which we are going to see today Now the last thing about influenza viruses is how do we name themChart on page 139 720How do you do the classification This year the strains you look at them as you put A A means influenza type A Thats the one as you know It is the serious one which can infect humans birds and pigs That is the one in which you can have antigenic shift OK that is important Page 140 he is referring to the first diagram on the page 735Usually the first letter tells you that it is type A In this case the SSR is the origin of it There is a graphic distribution And there is a strain number because in this business they have the strain they number them you dont have to worry about the numbers And the year the year of the virus the isolation of the strain Then they tell you also that H1 is the hemoglutinin type 1 and the neuroaminadase N1 or whatever N2 N3 etc This year you dont have to memorize it This year influenza or the flu vaccine is the following you dont have to memorize it This is for the regular influenza which means inactivated virus or killed virus which I am going to explain to you It is a live attenuated virus LAIV is live attenuated virus This is recent those are the last couple of years They are allowed which means they do the mixing Learn how they do the influenza virus the vaccine It is very simple They collect the strain from people who have influenza say last year in the winter They collect them from all different parts of the world WHO world health organization you have labs in Canada in hospital in US in Norway in Europe in India whatever They collect all these strains which they collect them from patients Patients who have the flu Usually older guys who they get the influenza They
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