Lecture 30

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University of Toronto St. George
Cell and Systems Biology
Mounir Abou Haidar

ParamyxovirusesSupl To p 175 1 of 23 Finalize them Quite recently maybe 1015 years ago they started havingdiscovery of new viruses One is Nipah virusesthey call it according to place Nipah is in Malaysia somewhere Zoonotic virusesanimalsinsects and humans are not animals Animals are like horses dogs whatever These are transmitted from horses and whatever to humansthese belong to the same paramyxoviruses which means RNA viruses Same as Hendra virus which is in Australia These are all paramyxovirsuses I think Hendra is also a place in Australia They came from horses essentially and sometimes from pigsSometimes they believe fruit bats can be transmitting the Nipah and Hendra viruses around because they arent going to be in pigs and horses all the timefrom animal to animal and from animal to human Not clear usually but usually contact with body fluidhorses if they sneeze or they touch or if you get saliva in your handsthe fluid coming out is enough to contaminate or infect people See diagram on Supl To p 175 p 5 of 23 around 300 minutesoWays of transmitting the Nipah viruspossible ways not confirmed of transmitting the Nepa virsues oCentre could be fruit bats or could be translated as well through some wild rodent such as mice or wild bull through pigs and then back to humansoThis is the Nipah virus and the Hendra virus is not much different in that sense353 In the outbreak 1015 years ago they had 50 of the ppl with the clinical symptoms died Not a large number had those symptoms but out of the ones who did 50 died Usually it caused hepatitis or encephalitisin the beginning its influenzalike symptoms and then you have encephalitisinflammation of the brainand as a consequence of this you get drowsiness disorientation convulstions and coma This is when your brain cannot copeleads to death449 Tried to derive viron against this virus but it didnt seem to have a major control on those viruses No protection no vaccine nothingthey didnt do much about this outbreak It seems it wasnt so seriouscame an outbreak and then fizzled outout of 265 people 105 diedbig scare for people happened about 10 years ago in 1999 This was the first time this had been describedAlso another virus which is recently discoveredhuman metapneumovirus hMPVyou already saw pneumovirus but this is a meta so it belongs to pneumovirus which is also a paramyxovirus By the way for SARS will come back to it later first they diagnosed it in Toronto as a human metapneumovirus but then they identified it as a corona virus But the symptoms are the same as metapneumovirusbecause they both cause pneumonia Human Metapneumovirus was isolated from 28 young children in the Netherlands in hospitals They had pneumonia and resp infectionisolated and found they were similar to those caused by human respiratory synctial virus Classified as metapneumovirus Same family but not the same virus 740 Hendra virus from Australia essentially from horses
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