Lecture 33

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Cell and Systems Biology
Mounir Abou Haidar

LECTURE 33JANUARY 31 2008INTODUCTION TO LECTURE053149Last time we started Rubella virus and we will continue on it today We will move to the Flaviviruses yellow fever we will see it hepatitis virus Hep C is a very serious virus yellow fever used to be a serious virus still is but to a certain degree Rubella Virus14926263 We went through the replication of Rubella virus It is only found in the human Morbidity and death are very uncommon however as we mentioned last time and repeating it again pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy if the women get pregnant and get infected in that period not much harm to the mother at all however for the baby when it is born it will have serious problems miscarriages still birth and a lot of physical and mental abnormalitiesmal formationwe will get back to this later on in details 4 Transmitted by aerosols between individuals It gives a small rash which is not a big deal and it grows in the mouth throat lymph node and it can get into the blood and cause viraemia thats normal However the congenitalone as you already know whenpregnant women has viraemia and the virus goes through the umbilical and this is one of the few viruses which can go through the umbilical cord to the fetus Those individuals of the infants born which got infected congenitally which means before birth the virus will stay in them for the rest of their life and they are reservoirs of the virus Remember that this virus does not infect or live in anything but humans So for mother suffering in viraemia in the first months of gestation the placental tissue or umbilical cord are very susceptible and then crosses to the fetus and then it will affect almost every organ in that fetus can have a lot of malformations because when the fetus is developing and gets infected then you get all sorts of mal formations on every organ the more earlier infection in the gestation the more sever the symptoms In mid 1960s there was a pandemic of Rubella virus in the US and they had 60 000 individuals that were affected by the pandemic then they developed the MMR vaccinethree viruses in one vaccine No harm to take this vaccine before pregnancy for women 6 The genome is like the alpha virus which has 2 ORFs sometimes overlap partially overlap in this case as mentioned last time Partially overlap means here is the first ORF here is the second one and one terminates and the AUG will be 3 nucleotides in a different frame for the next ORF slightly overlap 1015 nucleotides obviously they cant be in the same frame because you have a termination codon
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