Lecture 4 - Feb 2.docx

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Cell and Systems Biology
Dorothea Godt

Lecture 4Feb 2CSB429No Recording ask Emily or YingPolar granuleslarge conglomerates of proteins and particles mRNP particleWe dont understand all features of these particles in the germ plasm they are composed of many proteins and RNAs but it is clear they are important in making the germ line Some molecules important in making germ lines Oksar Vasa Tudor etc And they recruit other proteins and RNAs that include Germcellless Nanos Pgc etc And these molecules are important in either making the GLCs or maintaining themInteresting enough there is some mitochondrial RNA mtRNA that is important for germ cell formationIn picture on slide the granules are in close association to mitochondria and apparently some of the mitochondrial proteins leave mitochondria and enter cellular cytoplasm to form mtRNAs normally mtRNA is within the mitochondria and is important for mitochondrial proteins but here they are part of the germ plasm and seem to be important in the translation of some cellular proteins How do these mitochondrial ribosomes and RNA get out of the mitochondria No one really knows We already talked about nanos it is important because if we lose nanos we lose germ cells and these cells can actually take on somatic cell roles So nanos is obviously very important in these cells becoming germ line cellsEven if all other factors are present you need nanos to have germ line cells Nanos is a generally translational repressor and it is not completely understood what the direct targets of nanos are but we come back to this in a few minutesPgcthese molecules are important to inactive the RNAP2so it interferes with transcriptionAnalysis of these molecules has shown that some of these molecules are involved in repression of transcription which includes pgc which directly inavtivates the RNAP2 or nanos and germcelllessSo these three and maybem ore lead to a transcription silencing in the germ lineDuring early stages of germ linethey are completely transcriptionally silentTranscription silencing is important in preventing the somatic cell identificationfates There are other molecules Vasa Tudor and mtRNAs that regulat translation and they are important in producing germ line producing factors Idea that has developed is that to make a germ line you need on one hand vectors that promote germ line development little known and we need to suppress somatic cell fate Timeline Hours 15stage 4 formed pole cells 2stage 5
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