CSB430 Lec 2

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Cell and Systems Biology
Vincent Tropepe

CSB430 Lec 2 Evolution of the Brain  Comparative neuroanatomy perspective (adult brains) o Focus almost exclusively on vertebrates, not comprehensive o Looked at rabbits, horses, etc. o Had techniques to fix tissue and look at brain at gross anatomical levels o Would’ve inferred pattern of evolution based on what was seen  Edinger (early 1900s) - neuroanatomist o Did this analysis and concluded: o Major evolutionary event in mammalian brain evolution was the increase in size of telencephalon  b/c looked at different mammalian brains and parts of brain; compared sizes  concluded most changes in telencephalon  Same conclusion when considering “all” vertebrates o Then extended to non-mammalian vertebrates o Didn’t actually look at all, just had few samples Schematic View – of dorsal side of an elongated central nervous system  From anterior to posterior, prosencephalon (aka forebrain; comprised of telencephalon and diencephalon), mesencephalon (midbrain), rhombencephalon (aka hindbrain; includes medulla oblongata, cerebellum)  Series of enlarged structures as move from rostral end to caudal end  Found main changes happening in telecephalon, not much happening in other parts  Edinger looked at these components and looked at their sizes  All done by comparing adult brain Looking from Side View  Cartilaginous fish, lizard, rabbit, human  Telencephalon, underneath is diencephalon  Sizes of telencephalon does change but magnitude of change relative to body  Thought change of telencephalon = major change  Associated newest part of telencephalon = neocortex  Focused on telencephalon as it was the only thing that changed b/w species  Named based on when thought 1 evolved, time wise  Older parts = “paleo”  “Evolution by Sequential Addition of Structures” o Primitive animals have little, advanced animals have more Bird Brain (Coronal section)  All “subcortical”? o Instead saw similar to monkey stain Monkey Brain  AChE = acetylcholinesterase; degrades Ach  Can be used to detect Ach levels in striatum  When used to stain, staqins striatum in monkey  Hypothesis for birds: entire
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