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Lecture 2

CHM101_Lecture 2 2013.pdf

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Andrew( Andy) Dicks

Early Chemical History: Alchemy • Alchemy (“dawn of time” – current day!)▯ – the four elements: air (Anaximenses), earth (Empedocles), fire (Heraclitus) and water (Thales) (Greek) ▯ – Aristotle – held that the four elements are associated with the qualities: hot, cold, wet and dry▯ – aether (the quintessence) is the fifth element (extraterrestrial)▯ – similar elements were found in other ancient philosophies▯ – Western medieval alchemy sought to discover the philosopher’s stone (able to transmute common metals into gold), the elixir of life (a potion that would achieve eternal life) and the panacea (a remedy to cure all diseases) ▯ ▯ • Alchemy, Medicine & Chemistry▯ – Alchemical studies ultimately led to the development of both modern chemistry and medicine, both of which remain linked to this day.▯ – Hippocrates believed that illness was caused by an imbalance of the four bodily fluids: blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile▯ – Iatrochemists believed that physical well-being was dependent upon an appropriate balance of bodily fluids. Paracelsus in particular developed the use of chemicals and minerals for medical treatments.▯ From: Pandora, Das ist, ▯ Die Edleste Gab Gottes▯ © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B1▯ ▯ ▯ Early Chemical History: The Atom • Democritus (ca. 460–370 B.C.)▯ – pupil of Leucippus▯ – coined the word “atom” which is derived from the Greek word ἄτομος (atomos) meaning “indivisible” or “uncuttable”▯ – the universe is composed of an infinite number of tiny particles called atoms▯ – atoms are indivisible, indestructible and hence eternal particles▯ – atoms differ in size and shape▯ – atoms move randomly in a void and can collide and interlock▯ – everything including the four elements, human existence, mind and soul results from atoms▯ – these ideas were harshly criticized by other Greek philosophers, including Plato (who believed the elements were made up of geometric “Platonic” solids: cube, octahedron, tetrahedron, icosahedron & dodecahedron)▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B2▯ Early Chemical History • Robert Boyle – The Skeptical Chymist (1661)▯ – chemical theory should be based upon experiment▯ – matter is composed of different combinations of atoms, rather than the classical four elements▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ • Antoine Lavoisier – Trait é Élémentaire de Chimie (1789)▯ – defined a chemical element as a substance that cannot be broken down further by chemical means▯ Antoine Lavoisier ▯ – studied the chemical composition of air and water▯ 1743–1794 ▯ – discover the secret of combustion, disproving the earlier phlogiston theory of flammable materials▯ – as a result he proposed the law of conservation of mass and the notion of stoichiometry▯ ▯ ▯ "The Republic needs neither scientists nor chemists; the course of justice can not be delayed."▯ ▯ "It took them only an instant to cut off his head, but France may not produce another such head in a century.”▯ ▯ © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B3▯ Early Chemical History • John Dalton – A New System ▯ of Chemical Philosophy (1808)▯ – elements are made of tiny particles▯ called atoms▯ – atoms of a given element are different ▯ from those of any other element▯ – atoms cannot be created, divided into ▯ smaller particles, nor destroyed in a ▯ chemical process▯ – the atoms of different elements can be distinguished from one another by their respective relative atomic weights▯ – atoms of a given element are identical▯ – atoms can combine to form different compounds▯ – a given compound has the same relative numbers of types of atoms▯ – elements react in ratios of small whole numbers: “the law of multiple proportions”▯ – a chemical reaction changes the grouping of atoms in compounds▯ – Dalton’s work constitutes the origin of modern atomic theory▯ © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B4▯ Early Chemical History • Amedeo Avogadro(1811)▯ – equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules. ▯ – thus the relative molecular weights of any two gases are the same as the ratio of the densities of the two gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure. ▯ ▯ Gay-Lussac had earlier reported that above 100 °C the volume of water vapor was twice the volume of the oxygen used to form it. ▯ ▯ According to Avogadro, the molecule of oxygen had split into two atoms in the course of forming water vapor.▯ © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B5▯ Early Chemical History: Brownian Motion – the botanist Robert Brown (1827) observed the random motion of pollen particles in water – “Brownian Motion”▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ – J. Desaulx (1877) proposed that the motion was caused by the thermal motion of w ater molecules▯ – Albert Einstein (1905) developed the first mathematical model of Bro wnian motion.▯ ▯ ▯ © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B6▯ Early Chemical History: Sub-Atomic Particles – discovery of the electron (1897) – J. J. Thompson▯ ▯ – discovery of the proton (1917) – Ernest Rutherford▯ ▯ – discovery of the neutron (1932) – James Chadwick▯ ▯ ▯ © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B7▯ The Periodic Table of the Elements • Julius Lother Meyer (1864)▯ – arrangement of elements into families▯ ▯ • Dmitri Mendeleev (1869) ▯ – periodic table of the elements ▯ ▯ Primo Levi – The Periodic Table (1975)▯ Oliver Sacks – Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood (2001)▯ Mrs. Marcet – Conversations on Chemistry, In Which the Elements of that Science Are Familiarly Explained and Illustrated by Experiments (1806) © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B8▯ Modern Periodic Table of the Elements Online Periodic table: ▯ © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B9▯ Some Fictional Chemical Elements Kryptonite: radioactive mineral from Superman’s home planet of Krypton. In the largely execrable movie Superman III, the analysis of kryptonite revealed the following elemental composition:▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯▯ © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B10▯ ▯ Some Fictional Chemical Elements Dilithium: element used as a power Balthorium: element used in the conduit for warp drive engines in Gene Russian doomsday device in Stanley Roddenberry’s classic science fiction Kubrick’s 1964 comic masterpiece Dr. series Star Trek▯ Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop ▯ Worrying and Love the Bomb▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B11▯ ▯ ▯ What is Organic Chemistry? Organic chemistry is the study▯ of the compounds or molecules of carbon (C) CH + NH osmotic fog "speckled 2 4 nitrogen" © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B12▯ Carbon “Carbon, in fact, is a singular element: it is the only element that can bind itself in long stable chains without a great expense of energy, and for life on earth (the only one we know so far) precisely long chains are required. Therefore carbon is the key element of living substance: but its promotion, its entry into the living world, is not easy and must follow an obligatory, intricate path, which has been clarified (and not yet definitively) only in recent years. If the elaboration of carbon were not a common daily occurrence, on the scale of billions of tons a week, wherever the green of a leaf appears, it would by full right deserve to be called a miracle.”▯  ▯ From “Carbon” the final chapter of ▯ The Periodic Table by Primo Levi ▯ ▯ The Best Science Book ever written?▯▯ ▯ © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B13▯ Organic Chemistry Organic chemistry is the study of the compounds or molecules of carbon ( C) ▯ ▯ • The element carbon exists in several forms (allotropes), e.g.▯ ▯ ▯1. Graphite ▯ ▯2. Diamond ▯ ▯3. Amorphous▯ ▯▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯4. Fullerenes (C or C ) ▯5. Nanotubes ▯ ▯6. Graphene▯ 60 72 ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ 1996 Nobel Prize▯ 2010 Nobel Prize▯ (Kroto, Curl & Smiley) (Gelm & Novoselov) © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B14▯ Early Chemical History: Organic Chemistry Vitalism (Merriam-Webster dictionary) ▯ • a doctrine that the functions of a living organism are due to a vit al principle distinct from biochemical reactions▯ • a doctrine that the processes of life are not explicable by the law s of physics and chemistry alone and that life is in some part self-determining ▯ From a chemistry perspective the vital force theory predicted that organ ic materials could not be formed from inorganic materials▯ ▯ ▯ © R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B15▯ Early Chemical History: Organic Chemistry • Friederich Wöhler (1828)▯ – the “birth” of organic chemistry▯ ▯ O AgNCO + NH Cl + AgCl ▯ 4 C ▯ H 2 NH 2 ▯ urea Letter to Wöhler from Berzelius ▯ “When one has begun his immortality with urine, there is every reason to end the trip to paradise in the same way.”▯ ▯ Letter to Berzelius from Wöhler ▯ F. W öhler (1828) “I must tell you that I can make urea without the use of kidneys, either man or dog. Ammonium cyanate is urea. ”▯ "The great tragedy of science, the slaying of a beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact.”▯ ▯ • William Perkin (1856)▯ – serendipitous discovery of the first synthetic dyestuff mauveine▯ – the “birth” of modern chemical industry▯ ▯ W© R. Batey, Univ. of Toronto, Page B16▯ August Kekulé: Tetravalency of Carbon August Kekulé "Ueber die s. g. gepaarten Verbindungen und die Theorie der mehratomigen
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