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Lecture 1 and 2 notes chm139.docx

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Scott Browning

Chapter 1 Notes: 1.1: Mass refers to how much matter there is in a given object weight refers to the force with which the object is attracted by gravity. An important type of chemical reaction is decomposition, in which one substance is changed into two or more others. Substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler materials by chemical reactions are called elements. Unlike elements and compounds, mixtures can have variable compositions.  heterogenous and homogenous Dalton based his atomic theory on two laws of chemical combination, the law of definite proportions (in a compound, the elements are combined in fixed proportions by mass) and the law of conservation of mass (no change in mass occurs during a chemical reaction). Dalton’s theory proposed that matter consists of indestructible atoms with masses that do not change during chemical reactions. Potential energy = due to position of object relative to others Kinetic = due to the motion of object Electrostatic forces: opposite charges attract each other, and like charges repel. Things are more stable when they have less potential energy (are relaxed, on the ground, and when opposite charges are attracted) (higher energy= less stable) ***energy changes FORM but does not change COMPOSITION. 1.2: Phlogiston theory: The first theory of combustion (process of burning) states that an undetectable substance called phlogiston is emitted when something bur
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