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CHM135H1 (333)

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University of Toronto St. George
Kris Quinlan

LECTURE 1 – Chapters 1 & 2 Slide Number Notes 2 - Units matter 3 - before SI units, units were body-derived (ie. feet) - SI units allow for worldwide standardization, so scientists can communicate without misunderstandings - One-tenth of a meter is a decimetre - One-tenth of a decimetre is a centimetre 4 - must be comfortable with scientific notation, and able to use it on a calculator 5 - must know how to convert between the multiples 6 - (x unit B / y unit A) is the conversation factor - the equation gets you the measurement in unit B - the two “unit A”s cancel out - EX. 24hr(60min/1hr)(2L/1min)(1dm³/1L) (0.1m/1dm)³(30micrograms/m³) = 86.4 micrograms - Note that in the above equation, all units cancel out EXCEPT for micrograms - Formal solution to EX: Any mass above 86.4 micrograms violates the standard. 7 - Ans: D 8 - A is precise AND accurate - B is precise, but not accurate - C is neither accurate nor precise 9 - measurement ranges between 2.72 to 2.74 cm 10 - Ans: B - A has 4 significant digits, because the two zeros count - B – the “0.0” do not count as two significant digits, therefore 5 significant digits - C has 2 significant digits, see A for explanation - D has six significant digits - *** E is ambiguous: 2 to 5 significant digits because unclear whether the zeros are significant or placeholders (which means insignificant) 12 - A: 5 - B: 5 - C 3-5 (for explanation, see slide 10’s E) - ***D is an EXACT QUANTITY therefore significant digits do not apply 13 - ice is less dense than water therefore it floats on water 14
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