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CHM136H1 (147)

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University of Toronto St. George
C.Scott Browning

Tutorial 1July0312559 PM15 Describing Chemical Bonds Valence Bond Theory2 models for describing covalent bonding valence bond theoryand molecular orbital theoryValence Bond Theorycovalent bond forms when two atoms approach each other closely and a single occupied orbital on one atom overlaps a single occupied orbital on the other atom Electrons now paired in the overlapping orbitals and attracted to nuclei of both atoms bonding the atoms togetherOverlapping orbitals in Hhave elongated egg shape2The H H bond is cylindrically symmetrical This is called a sigma bond2 H H 436 kJmol2Product has 436 kJmol less so is more stable than reactantsThe HH bond has a bond strengthof 436 kJmolIf Hs are too close will repel each other because both are positively charged if too far cant share electrons optimum distance called bond length316 spHybrid Orbitals and the Structure of Methane2 2Carbon has four valence electrons 2s2pIn 1931 Linus Pauling showed that an s orbital and three p orbitals can hybridize to form four equivalent atomic 3orbitals of tetrahedral orientation sphybridsSuperscript 3 indicates how many of each type of atomic orbital combine to form hybrid not the number of electrons that occupy it Organic Chemistry Page 1
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