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CHM136H1 (147)

Tutorial 2.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
C.Scott Browning

Tutorial 2 July-07-12 9:21 AM - Roughly, atoms whose EN differs by < 0.5 are non-polar covalent, atoms whose EN differs by 0.5 - 2 are polar covalent, and atoms whose EN differs by > 2 are largely ionic - Inductive effect - the shifting of electrons in a bond in response to the EN of nearby atoms - Metals inductively donate electrons, while non-metals inductively withdraw electrons - Net molecular polarity is measured by a quantity called a dipole moment - The dipole moment, (Greek mu), is defined as the magnitude of the charge Q at either end of the molecular dipole times the distance r between the charges - Dipole moments are expressed in debyes (D), where 1 D = 3.336 x 10 -30Cm -19 - The unit charge on an electron is 1.6 x 10 C - - Formal Charge = (# valence e s in free atom) - (# valence e s in bonded atom) = (# valence e s in free atom) - (# bonding e s /2) - (# non-bonding e s) - RESONANCE: Example Resonance forms - The only difference between resonance forms is the placement of the π and non-bonding valence electrons (the atoms themselves occupy exactly the same places) - There is a single, unchanging structure called a resonance hybrid - A curved arrow in a resonance form indicates the movement of electrons, not atoms Painter Different forms of a substance don't have to be equivalent E.g.
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