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CHM220 LECTURE1.docx

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Raymond Kapral

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2.1 The Internal Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics 1. Internal energy U  The translational energy of the molecule  The potential energy of the constituents of the system  The internal energy store in the form of molecular vibrations and rotations  The internal energy store in the form of chemical bonds that can be released through a chemical reaction  The potential energy of interaction between molecules 2. The First Law of Thermodynamics The internal energy U of an isolated system is constant. (since the energy can be neither created nor destroyed) ∆𝑈 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ∆𝑈 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚+ ∆𝑈 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 0 ∆𝑈 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚= −∆𝑈 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑠 ∆𝑈 = 𝑞 + 𝑤,where 𝑞 is heat,and 𝑤 is work 3. Terms  Isothermal – constant T  Isobaric – constant P  Isochoric – constant V 2.2 Work 1. Work – any quantity of energy that “flows” across the boundary between the system and surroundings as a result of a force acting through a distance.  Work is transitory => only energy not work is associated with the initial and final states of the systems 𝑥𝑓 𝑤 = ∫ 𝐅 ∙ 𝑑𝐱 𝑥𝑖  If 𝑤 > 0, work is done on the system by the surroundings - ∆𝑈 > 0  If 𝑤 < 0, work is done by the system on the surroundings - ∆𝑈 < 0 2. Types of work Types of work Variables Equations for work Conventional units 𝑉 3 Volume expansion Pressure P, volume V 𝑓 Pam = J 𝑤 = −∫ 𝑃 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑎𝑙𝑉 𝑉𝑖 Stretching Force F, length l 𝑥𝑓 Nm = J
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