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CHM310 -Lecture 2.docx

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Jon Abott

CHM 310 LEC2  The story of how the atmosphere came to be and in particular how carbon plays a role  We are going to start with the composition of gases  Ppm  parts per million is a mixing ratio, no different than percentage  We are interested in where does that carbon comes from and why is it so imp  4.5 billion years ago it was thought that the solar system formed and the universe was about 17 billion years ago so the solar system started initially probably a star because it would have lived its life and probably  Why is there O2?  Why is there massive amounts of N?  Where the C and the fossil fuels emerged? 1. Atmopshere: N2  78%, O2 21% , Ar  1%, few percent water (Dry Atmsph) 2. 390ppm 0.039% CO2 3. Where does this C come from? 4. 5 billion years ago: the soil wasn’t formed 5. Universe is 17 billion, solar system started after the beginning of the universe 6. Sun was formed, the planet was formed 4.5 billion years ago. Inert gases are low on earth relative to sun. we are now having a secondary atmosphere. 7. Primary atmosphere  lost due to solar wind or large impact by the moon. 8. Earth have a secondary atmosphere – strong wind which blew away the primary atmosphere. 9. With a composition in the planet which is not disismlar to the sun 10. Jupiter, Saturn  there’s a lot of H in the planet, in earth there isn’t 11. In earth’s composition there is lot of inert gases. 12. Primary Atmosphere – Thicker. Saturn and Jupiter have this kind of atmosphere. There is lot of H in the atmosphere. 13. Secondary Atmosphere – Earth, relatively thin. Not that much of H. 14. How did this atmosphere evolve? The secondary atmosphere? 15. Two possible mechanisms a. Volcanic – volcanoes communicating compositer gases to the atmosphere from the inside of the earth. If you sample a volcanoes you can find CO2, SO2, H2O, fairly reduced molecules as well, like HCl. HF. b. Asteroid/ meteorite influence- the composition of the asteroid are ice and no of them have carbonated rocks. They have C in them already. Supply the volatiles. Together they started to give you secondary atmosphere. 16. Venus – average surface temperature 470Celcius 17. Earth – 15 degrees 18. Mars - -150 celcius 19. Venus Mars and Earth are like the same size, pretty close, but have extremely different conditions. 20. Why? 21. Earth: condensation of gases. Between Co2 and H2O, H2o condenses best. 22. Start to form oceans on the earth  Water, vapored in the atmosphere intitally,  23. Water vapored itself a very strong green house gas. By allowing the water to condense you don’t fill up GHG, and form the ocean CHM 310 LEC2 24. Co2 is a soluble gas, can dissolve within water. Relatively high soulbility 25. Co2 being exposed to water  carbonic acid  dissociates to bicarbonate dissociates to carbonate 26. Physical solubilty of co2 in water is higher than N2 , O2. 27. Calcium Carbonate  found in sedimentary rocks. Almost solid, 28. Lobsters shell is
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