Energy – Lecture 1 – Feb 14
Chemistry of fossil fueks
Alternative energy sources
Alternatives that are chemistry related
Nuclear power/ Energy
Introduction to fossil fuels and energy
1. 400x10^18 j/year = Global energy usage
a. 400x10^18J/year x year/365x24x3600s = 1.2x10^13J/s = (1 watt) (power = energy/time)
b. =1.2x10^13W (this is for everyone on the planet)
c. There is seven billion people in the planet
i. Per capita: 1.2x10^13/7x10^9(#of people) = 2x10^3W =2kw
ii. Is this a big amount?
iii. What is a kW? A hair dryer uses the power of a 1kW.
iv. This is = to 2 hairdryers running for every person 24/7 on the planet
v. For a canaidan it’s 5 times that = 2x5 = 10kW
vi. When you use electric energy the total amount is 2*24/7
vii. 100kW = 100Wx100W light bulbe burning for every single one of us all the time
viii. This is a lot!
ix. How much energy you use on a personal basis – how much light you use,
hairdryer, public system
x. This is a really massive energy
xi. And this energy goes up 2% / year
xii. Energy in the thermohaline or wind is immense.
xiii. Shows how much energy the planet can absorb.
a. Shows world energy demand
b. Units are little bit different, bit more common.
c. kW/h - measure of energy, kW/h per annum is shown. Same as before.
d. 120 [10 kWh/a] – if you use a device which uses a 120kWh then it uses 120 kW per
hour. It is easy as that.
e. Converting it to J/s we would multiply it by 1000W/kW x 3600 s/hr. get rid of the kW,
and hours. And we end up with 4x10^20Ws. Ws = J. Need to do this conversion! J is the
convention people use a lot.
3. The graph in the slide a. 120x10^12Kwhr/yr (to convert it into J) 120x10^12 x 1000 W/kW x 3600 s/hr =
b. 4x10^20 J
d. Prior to industrial revolution everything was biomass. Industrial revolution arose with
the use of burning coal.
e. What took off primarily in space, in Russia and states was oil. the first mine in the
1900’s. oil has become a major part of the energy supply.
f. And simultaneously with oil comes gas. Both are found in the same location.
g. In the last few decades, coal has taken over the list and has become the major concern
of world now.
h. It sends lots of co2 per unit energy
i.Hydro electrical power – large unit per capita. cananda uses this a lot. Use the water
flowing down a river.
j.Nuclear fission – nuclear power. Some countries have a lot of nuclear power. France has a
lot of nuclear power.
k. Fossil fuels are the 80-90% of the total amount of energy.
4. Slides 2:
a. Chapter 6 – new edition ch 7
b. Co2 emission – taken from fossil fuels
c. The graph looks flat, because Co2 in the last few years have come down. And switching
on to natural gas.
d. The largest emission is in china, in japan the line is flat, its industrial emission haven’t
changed with time.
e. The amount of energy usage per capita, comparing a canadian to a global person.
f. Per capita emissions in metric tons, this is of C per year.
g. Canada 5 tons, to get CO2 we multiply the molecular weight of CO2 and divide it by
the molecular weight of C
h. 20tons of CO2 is being emitted per person. (do the ca clualtion) – 21 minutes.
i.Saudi Arabia has lots of energy evaialable
j.Other indutrialzed countries use less that Canada, industrially less developed countires use
less C per capita.
k. What drives energy? If your economoy is going to grow, oyu will be using more energy.
You can say well, that is kind of true. Directly you have a much higher GDP in Australia
than india, but in a way it is a bit cockdown. The answer to this is not in conservation, because if you are holding yourself back you are holding down the economic
development. Another way to look at this plot is to look at the projectories.
l.These plots are as a function of time. UK is almose horizontal, you cant in a society increase
your GDP without increasing your CO2 emissions. And some countries have the same
GDP but uch higher C emmissions. The fact is that you are moving into a more efficient
sort of energy and a more C intense energy as you move horizontally across these plots.
m. So you can’t increase your GDP without increasing your co2 emissions. In some
countries you have the same GDP, but have higher C emissions than others do.
n. What this graph really show is that you are moving into a more efficient use of energy
and less C intense use of energy as you move horizontally across.
o. China emits more co2 than states.
p. About a third of our energy is transportation, about a third is industrial, third is
q. A neat way to think about how much C we use per person:
5. How much C intense should be:
a. Carbon emission = # people x GDP/person x Carbon intensity (CDC emission/GDP)
b. If you have fully Carbon neutral energy sorce then probably your intensity will be zero. If
your energy source releases tons of CO2 then your C intesisty will be high.
c. Fossil fuels slide 5: The C emission intensity was higher, but it is coming down – means
that we have become more efficient in how we are using energy.
d. Per capita GDP is generally increasing. Overall when you multiply all those terms
together you see that the co2 is increasing
e. Breakdown of country: China and USA roughly has the same amount of CO2. China is
somewhat higher. States co2 intensity is coming down, solid green line.
f. USA: While the GDP and populations are going up the C intensity is going up slowly.
g. The co2 measurements are increasing slowly because of the decrease in C intensisty
h. China – C emissions are the solid black line and it is going way way up;
i. Because the C intensity is increasing. What is driving that is coal. There is an
enormous no of coal mines opened up for fuel for the industrialization in china.
As well as increasing GDP. By this measure the quality of life is increasing,the C
intensity is increasing to much more rapidly accelerating.
ii. The middle is a common reference point.
6. Fossil Fuels
i. Crude oil is a Highly complex mixture of hydrocarbon
ii. Filled with
1. linear alkanes,
2. highly branched alkanes,
3. Small aromatics
4. Saturated compounds as well
iii. Formed hundreds of millions of years ago through oceanic processes iv. Biological pump – if you look at o