Fossil fuels – make up the largest source of energy
o Differnt fraction of crude oil
1. Slide 7: Fossil Fuel Slide: concept of oil is referred to as Peak Oil: which is attempting to desctibe
is when we will reach a maximum peak production of oil. Hbbert in USA – 1950’s answered the
question of how much oil there is, how long will it last.
2. The idea he developed was you can plot the discovery rate of oil as a function of time. You go
out and discover oil, and initially there is zero, and then it increases.
3. He said that gradually you can observe how that oil is going to grow in, and some points its
going to reach a maximum and eventually die off.
4. He made a prediction of when oil discovery would peak. You can do this for discovery rate and
also for the production rate which tends to slack off 10 years or so.
5. Another way to plot this is to integrate the curve, and it could be the total amount plotted
against a function of time. initially there would be none and then it would rise and reach a
maximum. Menaing that there will be no more oil to be found.
6. What he did in the oil in the states is that he made that prediction in the 50’s that the oil would
peak in the 70’s. thi plot here is the actual observation in 2005. And it os pretty darn good!
7. If you look at US there oil production is way past the peak.
8. The idea here is that eventually you just discover all the oil, and gets ???
9. If you start opening up new technologies and start looking for new types of oil you may be able
to prolong the curve, this is just another view which is plotted as a function of fruit from the
globe. ?? Gb stand for = giga barrels. A measure of oil.
10. Slide 9: The Q is what do you move into?wht might start to open up. There are lots of
a. Deep sea oil – traditionally what you can get is the oil in land, then you go a little bit
offshore, and then now you can get further off and mine deep which was much harder
to access in the past. Ex: DW is oil = deep water drilling oil. These are getting larger.
b. Oil from polar sources: lot of discussion anomng this on how much of this is going to
poen up for oil extraction. c. Heavy Oil HO is the havy black line. This is evident for the tar sands. You can go deep sea
drilling and look for HO. Tar sands are Canadian source of wealth. They make Canada
the second highest with liquid oil. Problem is much of it is as unsaturated hydrocarbon.
This is highly viscous and mixed with sand. Extraction of it is really hard. Slide 11:
massive massive trucks take sand, vaporize them. And you get 2 tons of water for every
barrel you make. You also have to do something called upgrading which is adding H to
make it more saturated making it more fluid. It takes energy to do this. The carbon
footprint from burning tar sand is 30% higher than saturated oil. Because you out a large
amount of energy to break it down. Tar sands have been around for a long time. it was
discovered in 1970’s. this really stands as a symbol of how Canada is going to treat the
environment ecause it is a massive amount of oil that Is going to get extracted
11. Different extraction procedures
a. Also referrd to as Champagne effect:
b. you find oil in ground you extract it. Its primary extraction. – 15%
c. Secondary extraction is to pump down into the oil, the reservoir, something to bring
some of that oil up. What they come down with is CO2, this is a regular transportable
extractable material. Pump down into a well trying to pressurize so that oil would come
up. is to pressurize the reservoir and bring them down. – 20-40%
d. Tertiary you add microbes, heat , chemicals to thin out the oil. 60%
e. There aren’t many places where tey are doing tertiary, but large amount of reservoirs
are going secondary extraction.
f. Shale oil/gas -C rish sedimentary roc which has oil within . Shale oil is a
g. Natural gas: is similar to oil. Largely methane. Its chemical composition is lot simpler
than oil. its a gas, and its purification is much more easier than oil. Oil you have to do
fraction ditillation. Natural gas is so much easier to be done.
h. You know that because If you have a gas stove at home you can burn it. You don’t have
a fluid etc. so it is an extremely clear oil. Atural gas are very clean, and not a lot of
emissions. Don’t have much of air quality issues. Mostly associated with oil, largely
found in marine organisms. It is a gas and sits on top of oil. Often you can oull up gas firt
and then ooil pulls p later.
i. There is increasingly a lot of gas. One of the nature advancement during the last 5 years
is the hydraulic fracking. These are very small operations.
j. You have a well head and a pool of water associated with it.
k. Wyoming is a mjor fracking operations location.
12. Fracking song;
a. the idea that you can track methane in shale like deposits, you dig a hole down a couple
of miles and turn the drill to the side, you pump down high pressures of water and
some chemicals to break the rock, and then chemicals helps to anti-freeze agents,
because there are huge amounts of methanol, and this helps from preventing the water
from freezing. But then also ther ear eother chemicals which are more organic soluble
try to liquefy the oil there too. So you can only get not only natural gas, but also get
shale oil which comes up. Then the gas comes up. Generally It is not a susta