March 4 h
Previous – coal, natural gas, oil,projection about how much oil there maybe in the future, peak like
approaches, the questions (how do you know if the approaches you have taken int eh past is the
approaches taken in the future).
Carbon barrier, nuclear 1 chapter, renewable 2 chapters.
1. Fossil Fuels- that are there to be extracted.
a. Major fossil fuels
i. Coal, oil and gas
ii. How much fossil fuel left to be extracted. Shown below
Fuel Type Proven Reserves (x10^21 J) Estimated
Coal 25 120
Oil 5 10
Gas 5 10
Tar Sands 1.5 3
Shale Oil (Oil coming from a C 10 20
2. You can use these no’s and calculate the life time:
a. We use as a planet currently about 44 x 10^21 J of energy
b. Life time of proven reserves =25+5+5+1.5+10 / 0.4 = 90 years
c. Proves reserves are what you know, which have been found
d. Estimated reserves are what we estimate to have in the world.
e. Life time of estimated = 350 years.these are calculated through geological formations.
3. If you try to fuel the world with just gas and oil, without coal, (this is what Canada is doing now.
They have very little coal, so use lots of hydro electric and lots of gas), we can even use the
estimated no’s and calculate the estimated time for these = which is like 100 years or so.
4. So we have estimated that there is no chance of running out of them in the near future.
a. If we look at the estimated resource, we think that coal is a big part of the future.
b. Coal is a big part of the future
c. Don’t memorize those no
d. These calculations are calculated by life time/ rate of loss = instaneous life time.
e. Tar sands is relatively small next to coal. Eventhough it is treated significantly in canda.
f. There is a lot of coal in the future, and even though we are now moving into a world
where we use gas and oil, it’s quite likely that they are going to disappear in the future
g. The instantaneous life time,menaing that we are taking the amount of fossil fuels and
dividing from the rate of loss now. but what happens to the rate of loss in the future? It
increases as the world industrially develops. So the life time decreases.
h. It is quite forcible that in your lifetime lot of the oil and gas will get wiped out
5. What happens if we run out of oil? a. Third of our fossil fuels usage now tranportaion related. And that is all gasoline. Which
comes from oil.
b. It is not just gasoline, any plastics coming from oil, any industrial product that has C in it
comes from oil
c. When you look in the future again you realize that the coal is becomingvery important
and you have to preserve coal to be a industrially feasible product
d. It is going through a couple of reactions which have been known for a couple of
hundred years ago, something called coal gas. Was used for street lamps and can be
seen in old houses.
e. The way you derive it is you take C and burn it, oxidize it, in modern Oxygen. You don’t
have to oxidize C necessarily with oxygen. You just have to oxidize with an oxidant.
f. But the way you can start to convert coal into something more usable is the following
i. Gasification: burn it in steam. What you form from that is CO and H2. you may
add a little bit of oxygen to drive the reaction.
1. C+H20 CO + H2 ( little bit of oxygen)
a. Product is Syn Gas = synthetic gas – useful for synthesizing
organic material. = CO and H.
2. How is this useful? You can use this in a variety of ways. 2 ways.
i. Like separate H and burn it. H is a fuel. You can follow it
with a second reaction.
b. Water gas shift reaction: take the Co and combust/ oxidize it
with more steam, forming CO2 and H2 as a fuel which is
burnable. The end result is similar. You have taken C coal and
taken it over to CO and used H as a fuel.
i. CO + H2O CO2 + H2 (g)
c. You can use this way to synthesize new organic molecules. This
is an old way of synthesizing material in organic chem.
i. Fisher Trpsoh Process
1. nCO + (2n+1) H2 CnH2n+2 +nH20
d. They are really two things here. you can take H and burn it. But
you can use the other material to make organic molecules.
g. This process requires catalysts. If you want to use higher alkane you can use cobolts, if
you want to make methane you can use nikel, and methanol copper. There are
h. If you run out of oil and you don’t have gasoline around, and you want to make
hydrocarbons, or plastics, then you can’t just use the large reserves of coal around, you
do it by combusting coal int eh absence of oxygen. And what you make form it is CO and
H. CO and H thorgh this allows you to combine those C hierarchy? This is generally
inefficient. It costs 20-30% more energy to derive the fuel whcich in this case is H. than
i. This is one main reason that we might start to see this chemistry looking forwad. j. The other reason is that you are now taking coal and essentially turning it into H and co2
with the help of water. this is important because you don’t have air around. Like
Normally when you burn coal you burn it in air.then you’ve got all this N and Ar around.
It is hard then to separate CO2 from the unburned air, and maybe excess O too. This
way befcause H has such condensation volatility than Co2, your only products are CO2
and H so you can this is trapped out co2. It is concentrated and notdiluted like N and ar.
So its concentrated CO2 coming out of yoursmoke. You can spate this easily from H,
because H is so volatile you can oull out Co2 much easily. This allows if you are willing to
do this. This ia really important point becasu it allows you to burn this large resource of
coal and not with co2 in it. It is possibly the way the world will move into the future. You
can use all the coal we have, and instead if using O to combust and make co2, the co2
now coming out is diluted. You can pull the co2 seperated from that flow, and then burn
6. Slide 18: Fossilfuels: This whole process have a name : IGCC – Inftegrated Gasification cobined
cycle – means that you take the coal, gasify it and combined cycle means that you convert and
lower it into co2 and H. one of these plants are been designed in alberts.
7. One of the main ideas in this is you need a way to strip the co2 out of the flow of gas that is
coming out of the coal. In this case it is from burning oil. You have the flow from co2 rich air,
here it is from a power station. You reversibly bind it to some sort of a binding agent. Mostly
amines is been used, major been used is ethinialmine a small amine that reversibly binds with
co2. You can strip it out and then you have these waste gases coming out, H coming out. Then
you heat it and the reversibly binding form of co2, and the co2 gets liberated and amine gets
recyleced over again.
8. The slide shows a power plant. You can use this technology in an IGCC cycle or in a power plant
where you are burning coal normally. You can concentrate the co2 and then you can ask what
you are going to d woth it. You can bury the co2.
9. There are no of ways to bury it.
a. You can take it far off shore, like 4-5 km. if you take it far enough off shore, like 4-5 kn if
yu inject the co2 far enough it forms a liquid and the liquid ends up been denser than
water. at 4-5 km depth. The co2 will liquefy and stay down.
b. You form a liquid if the pressure is high enough and the temp is low. Slide 15. If you take