N.B. I actually will not be scanning the slides, as there is really no need. Unless diagrams

pop up, I will only be typing up the notes I take during lecture. If you have questions or

would like clarification, email at jingwei.chen@utoronto.ca.

LECTURE 4 – Bonding and Atmospheric Chemistry

Slide No. Notes

Last

lecture

slide 24

-Ans: C

-Wavelength is inversely proportional to energy, so energy increases

in the opposite direction as wavelength

-The rightmost lines are 4->3, then 5->3, then 6->

BONDING

1-expanded octets possible – with d-orbitals being part of bonding

-1s orbitals have only two electrons

-valence electrons important for bonding

2-low ionization energy – easy to remove an electron

-electron affinity – energy associated with gaining an electron

-high electron affinity means that lots of energy are released when

electron gained

-oppositely charged ions attract each other

-surround each other – to maximize electrostatic forces

3-bringing them together lowers energy

-attraction of one hydrogen electron to nucleus of the other hydrogen

-there is an ideal distance for bonding

4-F highest – since smallest radius therefore electron close to nucleus

so attraction is very strong

-EX.

-H2 is non-polar covalent bond

-HF is polar covalent

-LiF is ionic

-Ionic bonds are between a metal and a non-metal

7-D

-There is a total dipole moment pointing to the left

8-electrons hate each other

-electron group can be a pair of electrons in a bond; 4 electrons in a

double bond, or 6 electrons in a triple bond; lone-pair

9- octahedral geometry – all bonds are 90 degrees

10 -water – angle between O-H bonds are 105 degrees

-this is a bent geometry because of the LPs

-LP on oxygen, not shared therefore more repulsive, attracted to just

one nucleus (the oxygen)

-If asked if something have a dipole moment, first determine shape

11 -5 electron groups

-lone pair tries to be as far away from the other electron groups

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-D – see-saw geometry

-Dipole moment? Yes

-The up and down dipole moments cancel out, but the total dipole

moment points left

12 -Ans: C

-4 electron groups

-N as central atom, with three F bonded to it, with a LP on the N

13 -Ans: A

-3 electron groups

-C as central atom, with three O around, each with 3 LP

-But then C does not have a full octet

-So, one of the O’s LP forms a double bond between C and that O

-Resonance structures are created

GASES

3-fixed shape and volume – solids

-liquid – fixed volume, not fixed shape, not compressible

-gas – neither fixed volume nor shape

-mass – s, l, g

-volume – s, l, g

-volume – l, g

-pressure – g

-atmospheric pressure is the pressure of all gases pushing down on

the Earth

4-C

-760mmHg + 25cmHg ( 10 mm/cm) = 1010 mmHg

6-273 K = 0 degrees Celsius

-PV = nRT – this formula applies to both the initial and final values

-NRT remains the same so P1V1 = P2V2

-Subbing in the values: (150 atm)(49.0L) = (1.02 atm)V2

-V2 = 2.10 x 10^3 L

7-Ans: D

-Next Ans: C

8-EX.1.

-V = nRT/P

-n = 1.00G of KclO3 (mol/122.55g)(3mol O2/ 2mol KCl3) = 0.0122

mol

-V = (0.0122mol)(0.08206 Latm/molK)(298 K) / 1.00 atm = 0.299 L

-EX. 2.

-Want g/mol – g have, mol need

-n = PV/RT = (365 mmHg)(1 atm/ 760 mmHg)(1.500 L) / (0.08206

Latm/molK)(295.65 K) = 0.0290 mol

-0.9847 g / 0.6290 mol = 34.0 g/mol

9-Ptotal = ntotal times RT divided by V

-1.00g H2 (mol/2.016g) = 0.496 mol

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-5.00g He (mol/4.003g) = 1.25 mol

-total n = 1.745 mol

-Ptotal = (1.745 mol)(0.08206 Latm/mol K)(293K) / 5.0 L = 8.39

atm

10 -kinetic energy distribution – within sample, not all molecules have

the same kinetic energy

-lighter molecules have higher speeds (see Textbook’s Table 9.5)

12 -Ans1: A

-Ans2: C

13 - no interaction between molecules

NEXT

LECTURE

1-these are empirical equations – values of gas are measured, then

fitted to equation

-P = nRT/V = (4.89 mol)(0.08296Latm/molK)(299K)/ 1.98 L = 60.6

atm

-This number is 35% too high

-To use the other equation, the one on the slide

-P = (4.89 mol)(0.08206 Latm/mol K)(299K) / (1.98 –

4.89molx0.0427L/mol) minus (4.89 mol)^2(3.59 atmL^2/mol^2) /

1.98 L^2 = 45.8 atm (2% too high)

-Use van der Waals only when a and b given, otherwise use the ideal

gas law

2-Ans1: B

-If doubled the volume, pressure should be 1 atm, but not

-Less than 1 atm, must mean something else is going on

-There is more interaction between A and B; they spend more time

together than bouncing off the walls of the container

-Ans2: C

-Kinetic energy affected by temperature

-Kinetic energy affects average speed

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## Document Summary

I actually will not be scanning the slides, as there is really no need. Unless diagrams pop up, i will only be typing up the notes i take during lecture. If you have questions or would like clarification, email at jingwei. chen@utoronto. ca. Wavelength is inversely proportional to energy, so energy increases in the opposite direction as wavelength. The rightmost lines are 4->3, then 5->3, then 6-> expanded octets possible with d-orbitals being part of bonding. F highest since smallest radius therefore electron close to nucleus so attraction is very strong. There is a total dipole moment pointing to the left. Ionic bonds are between a metal and a non-metal electrons hate each other electron group can be a pair of electrons in a bond; 4 electrons in a double bond, or 6 electrons in a triple bond; lone-pair. Octahedral geometry all bonds are 90 degrees. Water angle between o-h bonds are 105 degrees.