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31 Dec 2010
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LECTURE 5 – States of Matter
Slide No. Notes
2-intermolecular forces determine state of matter
-for instance, if intermolecular forces very strong, state of matter is
solid
3- 2 molecules approach each other, not bonding
5-opposites attract
-the stronger the charges, the stronger the attraction
-mixtures are where dipole-dipole interactions occur: need for ions and
polar molecules
6-leftside: lower energy state with many attraction forces
-rightside: dipoles are moving around
-H-bonding present in DNA, between strands
-F, N, and O are the only elements that can H-bond because they are in
the first row of the periodic table, so they are small, so H can get
close to the nucleus of these elements, therefore closer attraction
7- how readily dispersed
8 -range of ion-dipole strength because it depends on charge of ion, and
size of molecule’s dipole
-London dispersion forces range from smaller to larger than dipole-
dipole’s range
-Large molecules have strong dispersion forces because of the
presence of many electrons
-For similarly sized molecules, dipole interactions are stronger
9-as number of carbon atoms increase, boiling point increases
-the bigger the molecule, the more attractions between partially
negative and partially positive sides of neighbouring molecules
-boiling = causing molecules to move faster, to move apart, to change
in the gas phase – NO BONDS are broken
-straight-chain versus branched pentane – the former has a higher
surface area
-therefore, shape matters in both dipole moments and dispersion
forces’ strength
10 -Ans: D
-no dipole moment therefore will look at dispersion forces
-most electrons means strongest dispersion forces
12 -plateaus are where melting and boiling occurs
-energy goes into overcoming intermolecular forces
13 - Ex. sugar cube into coffee spontaneously dissolves
14 - upward-pointing arrow – depends on temperature if spontaneous or not
15 -Ans: C
-Volume does change – ex. liquid to gas
16 -equilibrium – having evaporating water while also have gases
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Document Summary

2 intermolecular forces determine state of matter for instance, if intermolecular forces very strong, state of matter is solid. 2 molecules approach each other, not bonding opposites attract the stronger the charges, the stronger the attraction. Mixtures are where dipole-dipole interactions occur: need for ions and polar molecules leftside: lower energy state with many attraction forces rightside: dipoles are moving around. How readily dispersed range of ion-dipole strength because it depends on charge of ion, and size of molecule"s dipole. London dispersion forces range from smaller to larger than dipole- dipole"s range. Large molecules have strong dispersion forces because of the presence of many electrons. Most electrons means strongest dispersion forces plateaus are where melting and boiling occurs energy goes into overcoming intermolecular forces. Ex. sugar cube into coffee spontaneously dissolves. Upward-pointing arrow depends on temperature if spontaneous or not. Volume does change ex. liquid to gas equilibrium having evaporating water while also have gases www. notesolution. com.

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