CHM136H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Trigonal Planar Molecular Geometry, Sigma Bond, Pi Bond

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1/11/2019 CHM136 Lec 3 - Google Docs
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Structure & Bonding (Lecture 3)
sp
3
hybrid orbitals → 2s orbital and three 2p orbitals “mix” to form 4 equivalent tetrahedral
orbitals ( 109.5 degree bonds; tetrahedral configuration )
- Eg. Methane (CH
4
) → carbon needs to form 4 bonds with H and needs 4 unpaired
electrons; therefore, it will form 4 sp
3
hybrid orbitals
- Structure of ETHANE (C
2
H
6
)
sp
2
hybrid orbitals → 2s orbital and two 2p orbitals “mix” to form 3 equivalent orbitals & one
unhybridized p-orbital ( 120 degree bonds; trigonal planar configuration )
- Double bonds two 2p orbitals overlap sideways to form a pi (𝛑) bond weaker than
sigma bonds
- An sp
2
-sp
2
sigma bond and a 2p-2p double bond results in the sharing of 4
electrons formation of a C=C double bond (double bond stronger than a single
bond)
- Whereas electrons are centred between nuclei in a sigma bond, they are located
away from the nuclei in a pi bond
- Structure of ETHYLENE (C
2
H
4
)
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