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CHM220H1 Lecture Notes - Closed System, Van Der Waals Equation, Ideal Gas Law

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Raymond Kapral

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2.1 The Internal Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics
1. Internal energy U
The translational energy of the molecule
The potential energy of the constituents of the system
The internal energy store in the form of molecular vibrations and rotations
The internal energy store in the form of chemical bonds that can be released through a
chemical reaction
The potential energy of interaction between molecules
2. The First Law of Thermodynamics
The internal energy U of an isolated system is constant. (since the energy can be neither
created nor destroyed)     
  
   
3. Terms
Isothermal constant T
Isobaric constant P
Isochoric constant V
2.2 Work
1. Work any quantity of energy that flows across the boundary between the system and
surroundings as a result of a force acting through a distance.
Work is transitory => only energy not work is associated with the initial and final states
of the systems
   
If  , work is done on the system by the surroundings -   
If  , work is done by the system on the surroundings -   
2. Types of work
Types of work
Equations for work
Conventional units
Volume expansion
Pressure P, volume V
  
 
Force F, length l
  
  
Surface expansion
Surface tension , area
  
Electrical potential ,
electrical change
  
Basic definitions
1. Thermodynamics science that describes the behavior of matter and the transformation
between different forms of energy on a macroscopic scale, or the human scale and larger.
2. System Boundary/Wall - Surroundings
Open system a system can exchange matter and energy with the surroundings
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