Film form: the overall set of relationships among a film"s parts. Formal analysis assumes as an active perceiver and an art work that provides cues. Form has no effect if it"s not being actively perceived by the audience. Meaning is created in the interaction between film and audience. Film form contains cues - cues that make the audience feel a certain way. It"s through formal analysis that we discover how movies make meaning. Meaning is the product of a dynamic relationship between the filmmaker and the audience. Meaning is not a closed system waiting to be unlocked by the perceiver (audience) , nor is it projected by the audience"s mind. Any given film has multiple levels of meaning (they are tiered/hierarchical) : All four of these can be worked simultaneously. Referential : challenges in making a particular film in that particular time (1920). How they come together and effect the making of the duelling cavalier.