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Civil Engineering
Mohammad Manshouri

Two types of screening: Model class screening - Project specific or location specific screening - There is a generic template for assessment for all projects within this class but further specifications are made - Ex: fish habitat restoration programs Replacement class screening - Under this category, all projects are given the same generic assessment so a separate screening report is not required for each - Ex: screening EIA prepared for holiday events include details of the main activity and the nature of individual ones but separate screening for individual activities within this main one is not required. - The projects that fall in this category are known to not cause any adverse effects or generate public concerns and occur in well-understood environmental settings with not too complex procedures. The decision making is simple and straightforward Impacts: Direct Indirect Cumulative - While not harmful on its own, a bunch of them together cumulatively may pose serious threats to the environment such as degradation of important resources. - Cumulative impact analysis focuses on the impact that a bunch of actions may have over time by interaction and addition of one another on the degradation of something - Both direct and indirect impacts need to be considered again when figuring out cumulative impacts even though they’re in a separate category on their own because the compounding effects of all of them together over time is risky - No matter who is responsible for the actions, each action must be considered as having a total effect on the ecosystem, human community and a resource – this is the cumulative impacts of the actions Barrows suggested guidelines that give a clear go-to for screening to determine if an EIA is required: 1. Some aspect of project will reach a threshold quantity 2. Site of development is sensitive 3. Development will potentially contribute to cumulative impacts 4. Input/output is not attractive such as extreme manual labor 5. Proposed development involves known risks Annex I of European EIA Directive lists the general criteria for need of EIA 1. General condition and character of receiving environment 2. Potential impacts of proposed development 3. Resilience of this affected physical/human system to deal with project induced effects 4. Level of confidence associated with likely impacts 5. Level of public interest 6. Consistency or compatibility with existing framework/policies EIA Scoping determines: - The impacts of the proposal and issues that should be focused upon in the environmental assessment - Sets boundaries of the assessment - Discusses relevant issues and concerns Scoping identifies those biophysical and human aspects that will be affected by the proposed development for which there is public concern by determining which environmental components are likely to be affected, which elements will be included in the study, and their degree of interaction with the development. Types of Scoping: Open -follows transparent process based on consultation with various interest and publics Closed -content and scope of EIA predetermined by law -modifications made only after closed consultations between proponent and competent authority Regardless of the type of scoping, it should accomplish the following:  Ensure input from stakeholders early on  Determine what scientific or public values and concerns are  Ensure the EIA process is not so general that it eliminates fine project specific concerns  Ensure the study actually generates a larger database to make better decision making and assists in sound decision making  Reduces volume of unnecessary data  Define spatial, temporal and other boundaries and limits of the assessment To help and ensure that the above are accomplished, some general principles include the following when carrying out EIA scoping: 1. Description of proposed activity achieves: -The reason for environmental impact assessment -Facilitation of better co-ordination and efficiency to carry out the assessment It should provide the general information (name and location of the projects, the provincial and territorial EIA legislations involved, the affected government bodies, the specialists or regulatory bodies contacted for data), project specific information (waste management, processes involved, engineering design, land use patterns), and site specific information (previous land use, identification of likely affected components). It is important at this stage to differentiate the need of the project versus the purpose of the project so that suitable objectives and constraints and thus suitable design and project alternatives can be accomplished 2. Scope project alternatives -an important step that can prevent environmental impacts -can either be alternatives to (at early planning stages) the project or alternatives means (at project scoping stage) of carrying out the project -alternative means typically include different locations or different project designs. There are several ways of evaluating alternatives in order to identify the preferred options among those remaining:  Cost benefit analysis  Decision trees  Weighted scoring  Networks  Ne
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