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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - Shifting Hegemonies from Sparta to Thebes to Athens to Macedonia

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Adriana Brook

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CLA160 Lecture 7JULY18/2011
Shifting Hegemonies from Sparta to Thebes to Athens to Macedonia
(Greece in the 4th century BCE)
After the Persian War, Athens became equally powerful with Sparta
Athens rise to power caused tension, which led to Peloponnesian War, and resulted
in Spartan victory
From then on, Athens went into decline, and never reached the peak it once had
the empire was no more.
Athens, no longer a player in politics
Power switches to Sparta to Thebes, and then back to Athens until Macedonia took
full control afterwards
Spartan Hegemony
Compelled cities to become oligarchies; building themselves a land empire
Similar to Athens during the Delian League phase, when they tried to coerce cities
to join the league
Thebes, a Spartan ally, refused to help Sparta in coercing other cities into oligarchies
Caused tension between Thebes and Sparta
Thebes thought that Sparta was extending its newfound power too far
Persians involved in Greek affairs
They helped the Spartans win the war in the Peloponnesian War by providing
Key players that drove Sparta into expanding and acting like Athens before its downfall:
Lysander a general; helped convert cities into oligarchies
Agesilaus Spartan king; went to Persia and conquered some of their cities
Persian King, Artexerxes, pissed off at the Spartans
Asked Thebes and Athens to overthrow Sparta and the two cities agreed
Persias goal in asking the two Greek cities to helping was so that the Spartans
would move out of Persian lands
Corinthian War (395-387 BCE)
Corinth didnt participate in the war, its just that the war happened around
During the war, Lysander was killed
Agesilaus, then decided that they needed more hoplites, and so called back the
Spartan army stationed in Persia to come help out in the war
Persia got what it wanted - no more Spartans in Persian soil
Peltast: light infantry
Theban and Athenians adopted new military tactics
Peltast are very mobile and flexible
Good for surprise attacks
Battle of Lechaeum (390 BCE)
For the first time, Sparta broke ranks and ran away
Persian King propose a treaty called the Kings Peace (387 BCE)
Persia gets all the Greek cities in Asia
All other Greek cities are autonomous
Sparta as guarantor of peace a mistake made by the Persians because it was
Sparta who caused the problem in the first place
Spartan garrison at Thebes
They used it as a base to attack Piraeus, the Athenian harbour/port
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