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Lecture 11

Lecture 11 - Roman Overseas Expansion


Department
Classics
Course Code
CLA160H1
Professor
Adriana Brook
Lecture
11

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CLA160 Lecture 11 JULY29/2011
Roman Overseas Expansion
Early 3rd to Late 2nd century BCE
-Carthage founded by the Phoenicia; its colony
Carthage had developed and it dominated all the Phoenician cities in Africa
It controls a maritime empire; strong naval army
Does not give out citizenship like Rome
Interested in Sicily, South Italy, Corsica, and Sardinia
Known for its trading business and rich agricultural lands
First Punic War (264-241 BCE)
-Rome vs. Carthage: interests in southern Italy and Syracuse begins to overlap
- Mamertines from Campania were mercenaries who had been hired by Pyrrhus to help
with his campaigns in the southern part of Italy
-The Mamertines take over Messana and the Syracusans attacked them because they took
over this strategic part of Sicily
-In 264 BCE, the Mamertines were hard pressed by King Hiero of Syracuse and there were
two different factions among the Mamertines some thought they should appeal to Rome
for help against Syracuse, some thought they should ask the Carthaginians
-Neither faction won out, they were still arguing over whom to ask for help when the
Carthaginians made the decision for them and simply asserted themselves and took over
Messana
-Carthages take over of Messana from the Mamertines made them nervous, and provoked
war
-Battle of Agrigentum: the fight ended in a stalemate because the Carthaginian holed up in
Agrigentum, which was located on the other side of Sicily, and the Romans besieged them
-The siege lasted from 264 to 262 BCE, and after the Romans realized that they needed a
new strategy to deal with the Carthaginians naval power
-Rome needed to think/improve its military
It built ships with a corvus (raven)
It allows the Romans to change a sea battle to a land battle by ramming their ships
into enemy ships, locking two ships together and lowering a plank to allow the
soldiers to have a land battle
-Rome took men to Africa: War in Numidia
-Leader of Carthage: Hamilcar
Unable to fight in two fronts: Sicily and Africa
-241 BCE: Hamilcar agreed to negotiate peace with the Romans
Loss of Sicily, payment of indemnity, and other clauses that lead to the Romans
later seizing Corsica and Sardinia
Roman Provinces
-Latin: provincial (pl. provinciae)
It becomes a region to which Rome assigns a consul or praetor (with an army) each
year.
-Prorogation (proconsuls, propraetors): the extension of a commanders imperium beyond
the 1yr term; the Romans response to its expansion and militarization
The number of territories Rome gained outgrew the number of elected officials
available to take on military and administrative duties
-Governors: administrative duties, judicial functions, supervised finance, and supply
Roman armies
Assigned to a province
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